2012 Vol. 29, No. 1

Cloning and bioimformatic analysis of the cellulose synthase-like protein gene,ClCslD1 from Cunninghamia lanceolata
PENG Sha-sha, TONG Zai-kang, HUANG Hua-hong, ZHOU Hou-jun, SHI Jian, LIN Er-pei
2012, 29(1): 1-6. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2012.01.001
[Abstract](3482) [PDF](1289)
The protein structure of the cellulose synthase-like protein (CSL) was similar to cellulose synthase (CesA),including the conservative sequence D,D,D,QXXRW. One full-length cDNA of the cellulose synthase-like protein D (CslD) gene was cloned by reverse transcriptase (RT)-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with 5,3 rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) methods using degenerate primers designed from the homologous sequences of the CesA genes. A multiple comparison sequence analysis was conducted concurrently with bioinformatic methods to analyze the obtained sequence. Results of the sequence analysis showed that this cDNA was 4 150 bp in length and contained a single open reading frame encoding a protein of 1 132 amino acids. The multiple comparison sequence analysis showed that the deduced amino acid sequence shared high similarity (over 71%) with the ClCslD genes from Populus tremuloides,Oryza sativa,and Arabidopsis thaliana. This work will help lay an important foundation for further molecular studies with cellulose synthesis of plants. [Ch,5 fig. 10 ref.]
Morphological and anatomical characteristics along with nutrient content changes during flower bud differentiation in Oncidium
PENG Fang, TIAN Min, WANG Cai-xia, WEI Peng-xiao
2012, 29(1): 7-11. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2012.01.002
[Abstract](3407) [PDF](1614)
The flower bud differentiation process of Oncidium Milliongolds was studied using the paraffin cut method with changes of soluble sugar,soluble protein, and nucleic acid contents in leaves being determined. Results showed that the flower budding process could be divided into six differentiation phases:undifferentiated,inflorescence primordium,flower primordium,sepal primordium,petal primordium,and column and pollinia. Also,in leaves, soluble sugar decreased sharply till reaching a minimum at the flower bud differentiation period followed by a stable increase;soluble protein decreased sharply and then increased;maximum protein content occurred in the new bud sprouting period;and nucleic acid content declined overall.[Ch,2 fig. 1 tab. 12 ref.]
Physiological responses of Oligostachyum lubricum with elevated atmospheric ozone concentrations
ZHUANG Ming-hao, LI Ying-chun, CHEN Shuang-lin, LI Ying, GU Da-xing
2012, 29(1): 12-16. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2012.01.003
[Abstract](3072) [PDF](994)
This research was conducted to provide theoretical evidence for bamboo cultivation during this time of possible climate change. Open-top chambers (OTCs) were employed to determine the effects of elevated ozone on photosynthetic pigment content,soluble protein content,soluble sugar content,lipid peroxidation,and anti-oxidation enzymes in the leaves of Oligostachyum lubricum using a split-plot design with treatments of Control (NF),92-106 nLL-1 of O3 concentration (TR-1),and 142-160 nLL-1 of O3 concentration (TR-2),three replications. Results showed that,after 90 d,compared with NF,in treatments TR-1 and TR-2 there were significant decreases in the contents of chlorophyll (P = 0.002 4),carotenoids (P = 0.049 4),and soluble protein (P = 0.031 5),as well as superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity (P = 0.033 0) with significant increases in relative electrical conductivity (P = 0.013 5),peroxidase (POD) activity (P = 0.039 6),and malondialdehyde (MDA) content (P = 0.000 4). Soluble sugar content decreased significantly (P = 0.003 7) only in treatment TR-2. Also,in leaves of TR-2 compared to TR-1,there was a significant increase in electrical conductivity (P = 0.044 8) and MDA content (P = 0.000 2),but a significant decrease in soluble sugar content (P = 0.001 5). Thus,elevated ozone concentrations intensified the damage to membrane lipids and destroyed the structure of cell membranes,thereby affecting normal growth of O. lubricum. [Ch,2 fig. 1 tab. 22 ref.]
Physiological characteristics of Neosinocalamus affinis and Bambusa pervariabilis × Dendrocalamopsis grandis with natural low temperature
ZHANG Fan, WAN Xue-qin, ZHU Xiao-qiong, JIANG Yan-qi, GAO Long, CHEN Qi-bing
2012, 29(1): 17-22. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2012.01.004
[Abstract](2987) [PDF](1019)
An unusually severe snow disaster occurred in southern China in 2008,which exposed variation in bamboo species. Neosinocalamus affinis was highly tolerant to low-temperature damage,but hybrid bamboo (Bambusa pervariabilis Dendrocalamopsis grandis) died out. Why did the phenomenon occur? A study was thereupon conducted to determine the effects of natural low temperature stress on physiological characteristics to compare their chilling tolerance. Leaves of N. affinis and the hybrid bamboo were sampled in summer (22-30 ℃) and winter (-2 - 4 ℃) to study physiological characteristics,such as chlorophyll (Chl) content,membrane permeability,malondialdehyde (MDA),soluble sugar content,free proline content,and electrolyte leakage;along with superoxide dismutase (SOD),peroxidase (POD),and catalase (CAT) activities. The age of leaf samples uniforms to ensure the accuracy of experiment. The results showed that Chl contents of both bamboo species gradually decreased with decreasing temperature,whereas membrane permeability,MDA,soluble sugar content,free proline content,and electrolyte leakage increased. Also,SOD,POD,and CAT activities increased. With the same low temperature stress,MDA and electrolyte leakage in the leaves of N. affinis were lower (P<0.01) than the hybrid bamboo,whereas free proline content,soluble sugar content,SOD,POD and CAT activities were higher (P<0.01) than the hybrid bamboo. [Ch,3 tab. 21 ref.]
La(NO33 and cold tolerance with Caryota urens seedlings
RUAN Zhi-ping, HUANG Quan-neng, WANG Fen-fen, YAO Bi-yan, LIU Yu-ming, LI Zhen-ji
2012, 29(1): 23-28. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2012.01.005
[Abstract](3252) [PDF](966)
The study was performed to investigate the effects of La(NO3)3 on the cold tolerance of Caryota urens seedlings. Effects of La(NO3)3 were tested by spraying the foliage of C. urens with 0,100,350 and 500 mgL-1 La(NO3)3 solution. Then,physiological indices,including activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and peroxidase (POD) as well as the content of malondialdehyde (MDA),proline,soluble protein,chlorophyll,and chlorophyll a/b,were determined after treated in 25 ℃(1),5 ℃,and 25 ℃(2) for 24 h respectively in turn. It was indicated that all the above?鄄mentioned physiological indices varied with different concentrations of La(NO3)3. Results of the fuzzy membership functions comprehensive evaluation for different La(NO3)3 solution at 25 ℃(2) were 0.39 for 0 mgL-1,0.34 for 100 mgL-1,0.85 for 350 mgL-1,and 0.76 for 500 mgL-1. It was concluded that spraying leaves with different concentrations of La(NO3)3 could affect the cold tolerance of C. urens seedlings with the most effective being 350 mgL-1.[Ch,3 fig. 1 tab. 16 ref.]
Interaction of water and fertilizer on seedling height for first-year growth Populus × euramericana ‘74/76’ with drip irrigation
WANG Zi, MA Lü-yi, JIA Zhong-kui, GONG Ning-ning
2012, 29(1): 29-34. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2012.01.006
[Abstract](3202) [PDF](984)
Water and nitrogen fertilizer are important influences on plants. To optimize irrigation and fertilizer schemes for cultivation of high quality first?鄄year growth Populus euramericana 74/76,a split plot design with four water treatments,three nitrogen fertilizer treatments and three replications was used with ranges of seedling height growth. Water treatments were supplied at watering to 100%,80%,60% field capacity or no watering for trees;nitrogen treatments were supplied at 0,8.00 or 15.08 gtree-1. Based on a quadratic regression of seedling heights,a regressive math model between seedling heights (y) and irrigation water (x1),nitrogen (x2) was established:y=297.378+1.737x1+5.382x2-0.008x12-0.197x22-0.015x1x2. Results showed significant differences for seedling heights (P<0.01) with an influence of nitrogen > water and nitrogen > water. For seedling heights between 300 and 360 cm,the optimum combination was:irrigation water of between 8.45 - 19.25 kgtree-1 and nitrogen of between 4.57 - 9.12 gtree-1;for seedling heights between 360 and 400 cm the best combination was:irrigation of between 36.02 - 41.87 kgtree-1 and nitrogen of between 8.68 - 11.43 gtree-1. This research could contribute to water and fertilizer saving for cultivation of high quality Populus euramericana 74/76. [Ch,3 tab. 14 ref.]
Autumnal water features of eight tree species in Zhejiang
ZHANG Jun, WEN Guo-sheng, ZHANG Ming-ru, LIU Xin-xin
2012, 29(1): 35-40. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2012.01.007
[Abstract](3495) [PDF](1020)
To determine the value of photosynthetic rate (Pn),transpiration rate (Tr),and water feature parameters [osmotic potential at turgorloss peint (p),water potential at water saturation point (0),(rate of bound water in cell) (VP /V0),relatire content of water (CRW),and bulk modulus of elasticity ()] of eight tree species,namely Schima superba,Castanopsis sclerophylla,Lithocarpus glabra,Lithocarpus harlandii,Photinia serrulata,Loropetalum chinense var. rubrum,Podocarpus nagi,and Elaeocarpus sylvestris,in the Zhejiang hilly area during autumn,a Li-Cor (Li)-6400 photosynthesis system,a pressure chamber,and pressure- volume (P-V) technology were utilized. A correlation analysis of the parameters was conducted. Results of the correlation analysis showed significant (P < 0.05) relationships between VP /V0 and (r = 0.809),VP /V0 and 0 (r = -0.732),VP /V0 and p (r = 0.801). The highest peak water use efficiency (WUE) was found in S. superba (28.52 mmolmol-1) and the lowest with C. sclerophylla (12.92 mmolmol-1). The highest water use efficiency per day was with Lithocarpus glabra (10.44 mmolmol-1),where as the lowest was for C. sclerophylla (4.03 mmolmol-1). Comparing the five water parameters,the order of water absorption capacity was S. superba > Loropetalum chinense var. rubrum > Lithocarpus harlandii > C. sclerophylla > Lithocarpus glabra > E. sylvestris > Photinia serrulata > Podocarpus nagi;whereas the order of dehydration tolerance was S. superba > Loropetalum chinense var. rubrum > Lithocarpus harlandii > C. sclerophylla > Lithocarpus glabra > E. sylvestris > Photinia serrulata > Podocarpus nagi. [Ch,1 fig. 4 tab. 10 ref.]
Lycoris haywardii growth with carbamide and KH2PO4 treatments
BAO Chun-song, SHI Jian, ZHANG Peng-chong, ZHANG Hai-zhen, XU Yun-qian
2012, 29(1): 41-45. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2012.01.008
[Abstract](3348) [PDF](925)
To study the effects of carbamide and KH2PO4 as fertilizer on leaf growth and bulb biomass of Lycoris haywardii over two successive growing seasons,an experiment with a two-factor design of four different carbamide and KH2PO4 application levels (carbamide at 0,0.5,1.0 and 1.5 kgm-2;KH2PO4 at 0,0.35,0.70 and 1.05 kgm-2) as a topdressing fertilizer and three repetitions was established. Data were analyzed with SSPS16.0. Results showed that carbamide applications (>0.5 kgm-2) had a significant (P<0.05) negative effect on leaf number,sprout number,bulb number and bulb biomass in the next growing season,and leaf length in the following growing season. The KH2PO4 treatment at 0.35 kgm-2 in the following growing season significantly increased the leaf count (P<0.05). Leaf quantity was linearly and positively related to the bulb biomass (linear regression;r=0.941,P=0.000) and was similar to qualitative results from subjective evaluations. So,subjective evaluation could be used to estimate live-weight trends for bulb biomass and to evaluate growth effects of L. haywardii with fertilization. [Ch,8 tab. 10 ref.]
Niche characteristics of a Quercus liaotungensis forest in the Lingkong Mountains
Yilita, Haoshuqi, HAN Hai-rong, FAN Xiao-hua, KANG Feng-feng
2012, 29(1): 46-51. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2012.01.009
[Abstract](2797) [PDF](1118)
To determine important indicators of resource status,such as species,niche breadth (Bi and Ba),and niche overlap),a survey of datum plots for populations of trees (6 species),shrubs (8 species),and herbs (11 species) within a Quercus liaotungensis forest in the Lingkong Mountains of Shaanxi Province were studied using the niche breadth formulae of Levins and Hurlbert and the niche overlap formula of Levins. Results indicated that in the overstory,niche breadth for Quercus liaotungensis (Bi = 1.159 0 and Ba = 0.796 0) and Pinus tabuliformis (Bi = 0.990 7 and Ba = 0.536 1) was greatest. In the shrub layer,niche breadth of Spiraea trilobata (Bi = 1.095 0 and Ba = 0.509 0) was largest. In the herb layer,niche breadth of Carex lanceolata (Bi = 1.309 7 and Ba = 0.948 5) was the most prevalent. Degrees of overlap existed among the various layers with the overlap indexes gradually decreasing from the overstory to the understory. Thus,species with a larger niche breadth had stronger resource utilization capabilities,and their niche overlap was greater than other populations.[Ch,1 fig. 4 tab. 14 ref.]
Growth characteristics and biomass distribution of Phyllostachys pubescens stands with changes in fertilization time
CHEN Xiao-chou, LIU Guang-lu, FAN Shao-hui, GUAN Feng-ying, SU Wen-hui, HUANG Jin-hua
2012, 29(1): 52-57. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2012.01.010
[Abstract](3148) [PDF](1083)
It was important to study the Phyllostachys pubescens stands with different fertilization periods (Ⅰ:without fertilization,Ⅱ:5 years of fertilization,and Ⅲ:13 years of fertilization)growth characteristics and biomass distribution pattern for maintain the long-term productivity. Growth characteristics and biomass distribution of three Phyllostachys pubescens stands with different fertilization periods were studied by field survey in Yongan County,Fujian Province. Results showed that biomass was in the order of Ⅱ>Ⅲ>Ⅰ. The mass fraction of bamboo stems decreased with fertilization time,whereas the mass fraction for bamboo branches,leaves,roots,and culm stumps increased. Biomass of the shrub layer was in the orderⅢ>Ⅰ>Ⅱ. The mass fraction for shrub branches and leaves increased in forestⅢ,was in the order of Ⅲ>Ⅰ>Ⅱ,and the mass fraction for shrub roots decreased in forestⅢ,was in the order of Ⅱ>Ⅰ>Ⅲ. The mass fraction of grass leaves decreased with fertilization time as the mass fraction of grass roots increased. The litter mass increased with fertilization time. Therefore,litter increases could be related to higher productivity with fertilization in bamboo stands;also,since major economic issues with bamboo concerned its culm,the decrease in bamboo culms with fertilization increases over time could reduce economic gains which fertilization sought to increase. [Ch,3 fig. 2 tab. 29 ref.]
Screening and identification of inhibiting strains for Carya cathayensis canker disease
TIAN Tian, SHEN Zhen-ming, XU Qiu-fang, LIU Bo-rong
2012, 29(1): 58-64. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2012.01.011
[Abstract](3228) [PDF](1217)
The objective of this paper was to get a few of available inhibiting strains against Carya cathayensis canker disease. Inhibition assay was used to preliminarily screen strains from soils that inhibited Botryosphaeria dothidea,the pathogen of Carya cathayensis canker disease. Then,phenotypic characteristics and analysis of internal transcribed spacer (ITS) fragments were used to identify the strains. Results of the preliminary screening revealed five strains. After being cultured against pathogen,two of five strains,QZ2 and QZ8,exhibited inhibiting capability with apparent inhibition zones between the pathogen and strains QZ2 and QZ8 being observed. Spores of strain QZ2 finally covered the pathogen completely with pathogen growth ceasing. QZ2,which controlled the canker disease by parasitizing the disease strain,was identified as Trichoderma asperellum. Strain QZ8,which inhibited disease pathogen growth by creating antibiotics,was identified as Penicillium oxalicum. It can be concluded that QZ2 and QZ8 are potential strains for development of bio-controller against Carya cathayensis canker disease. [Ch,7 fig. 13 ref.]
Precision fire hazard divisions for collective forest in southern China
XU Ai-jun, HUANG Xiao-yin, JIANG Guang-yu, SHAO Jian-long
2012, 29(1): 65-71. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2012.01.012
[Abstract](4543) [PDF](982)
This paper focuses on how to build the model of precision fire hazard divisions in the level of forest forest resources subcompartment. Based on 3D GIS technology and characteristics of forest fires in collective forest of southern China,this study utilized Linan City,Zhejiang Province as the experimental area. Forest fire factors were divided into 11 indexes from the three categories (social and economic factors,forestry characteristics,and meteorological characteristics) and weighted for analysis. Next,three eigenvectors (one for each category) were created to build a nonlinear mathematical model called precision fire hazard divisions for forests. Then,the model was used to optimize and test forest fire hazard divisions with the least squares. Results showed that experimental and theoretical values of error were less than 0.1. Thus,in the experimental area this model and the fire occurrence history matched.[Ch,1 fig. 5 tab. 13 ref.]
Aerial image information extraction based on non-negative matrix factorization
HAO Hong, XU Chang-qing, ZHANG Xin-ping
2012, 29(1): 72-77. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2012.01.013
[Abstract](3043) [PDF](1154)
This study was on superiority of the non-negative matrix factorization (NMF) algorithm for application of information extracted with aerial images. First,NMF was used for aerial image information extraction,and then this data was compared with a principal component analysis (PCA) in which r (the number of rows or columns of basic matrix) and Eignum(the number of eigenvalues) were given different values. Experimental results showed that the run time of NMF with r = 20 or 50 was less than that of PCA with an Eignum = 20 or 50. Also,the recognition rate of NMF with r = 50 was higher than that of an Eignum = 50. The experiment showed that non-negative matrix factorization had advantages of a short time period with a high recognition rate. [Ch,10 fig. 2 tab. 7 ref.]
Performance of bamboo treated with environmentally sound anti-mould chemicals
CHEN Li-fang, HE Xue-xiang, MA Hong-xia, XIE Gui-jun, ZHANG Yan-jun, WANG Jian-jing
2012, 29(1): 78-82. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2012.01.014
[Abstract](3684) [PDF](1149)
In order to develop a highly effective environmentally sound anti-mould agents for bamboo,four low-toxic anti-mould chemicals including UD (active ingredient:Didecyl dimethyl ammonium chloride),GM(active ingredient:2-(Thiocyanatomethylthio) benzothiazole),DCM (active ingredient:2-Methyl-4-Isothiazolin-3-one) and SMR (active ingredient:Isothiazolinones and 1,2-Benzisothiazolin-3-one etc.) were tested for their anti-mould efficacy on three bamboos Bambusa eutuldoides,Phyllostachys pubescens,and Arundinaria amabilis respectively,in comparision with conventional highly toxic anti-mould agent PCP-Na (sodium pentachlorophenate) which has been banned. The test results showed that the efficecy of anti-mould chemicals decreased with the lapse of exposure time,and treated bamboo with high retention of anti-mould chemicals performed better than that with lower retention. There were differences in mould prevention among anti-mould chemicals,and SMR,UD and PCP-Na performed better than GM and DCM after exposure for 8 - 12 weeks,and after exposure for 6 months,treated bamboo with environmentally sound anti-mould agent SMR was similar to that with highly toxic anti-mould agent PCP-Na,still kept very good performance in mould prevention,while teated bamboo with other three anti-mould chemicals were hardly mildewproof. Three species of bamboo performed also differently in mould resistance,among A. amabilis was the best,followed by Ph. pubescens and B. eutuldoides respectively.[Ch,4 tab. 11 ref.]
Dynamic and static modulus measurements for thin particleboard
YAN Hai-cheng, ZHANG Hou-jiang, ZHU Lei, SUN Yan-liang, LIU Xiang-xi
2012, 29(1): 83-87. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2012.01.015
[Abstract](3280) [PDF](951)
To provide a means of dynamic and static bending evaluation for modulus of elasticity with small samples of thin wood composites,a cantilever-beam testing apparatus was developed based on the principle of cantilever-beam bending and vibration. Three sizes of thin particleboard,thickness of 3 mm,5 mm and 8 mm,were tested and compared using a correlation analysis by Statistical Package for the Social Science (SPSS) software and the three-point bending method. Testing results showed a highly significant correlation (P<0.01) for dynamic modulus (Ed) and static bending modulus (Es) with three sizes of thin particleboard. Re-sults also showed a highly significant correlation (P<0.01) between Ed and the three-point bending modulus (Eb) for three sizes of thin particleboards. So for thin particleboards,Ed and Es as well as Ed and Eb were strongly related,and it would be effective to measure the cantilever dynamic modulus and the static bending modulus with this cantilever-beam testing apparatus.[Ch,6 fig. 3 tab. 10 ref.]
Research on accounting recognition and measurement of forest ecological assets
LIU Mei-juan, WEN Zuo-min, WEI Yuan-zhu
2012, 29(1): 88-96. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2012.01.016
[Abstract](3407) [PDF](1102)
Current accounting standards and systems do not include the accounting of forest ecological assets. With the increasing attention that people pay to forest ecological issues and the needs for accounting information disclosure,its value accounting has become a forefront issue and hot topic in the accounting profession. The profound issues about its particularities,accounting recognition and measurements are to be solved. Based on the analysis of the features of forest ecological assets and its impacts on accounting recognition and measurement,this paper proposes that accounting recognition should be based on the appraisal and a fair value model is suggested for initial and further measurement of forest ecological assets. For the fair value measurement,the appraisal techniques of non-market values should be given more consideration. And its value appraisal methods should refer to the existing mature ecological economic or environmental economic appraisal methods.[Ch,1 tab. 22 ref.]
Comprehensive development of leisure agriculture and outdoor activities
GU Xiao-yan, MENG Ming-hao, YU Yi-wu
2012, 29(1): 104-110. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2012.01.018
[Abstract](2794) [PDF](1307)
Leisure agriculture could provide a good platform for the development of outdoor activities. While the development of outdoor activities could broaden the spaces,strengthen the impetuses,and enhance the benefits of leisure agriculture development. This paper puts forward the comprehensive development frame and the strategies of leisure agriculture and outdoor activities including leisure products integrated exploitation,projects coupling management,and their combined branding,which lay in 6 ways such as the idyllization and ecological construction of landscape and environment,experiencing activities designing,culture presentation,rational design of operating pattern of enterprise,classified development of human resources,combined branding etc. Then a case study on Yongan Farms in Fuyang City in Zhejiang was conducted.[Ch,1 fig. 1 tab. 19 ref.]
Development process,agents and prospect of hickory industry
Lü Qiu-ju, SHEN Yue-qin, GAO Yu-lie, HUANG Jian-qin
2012, 29(1): 97-103. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2012.01.017
[Abstract](3375) [PDF](1690)
Hickory (Carya cathayensis),as a kind of non-timber forest products,has a great significance to increasing farmers income and promoting countryside economical prosperity. Taking Linan City and Chunan County in Zhejiang Province and Ningguo City in Anhui Province as research objects,this paper analyzes the development process and agents of hickory industry. Hickory industry has undergone three stages of development:before 1988,1989-2002 and after 2003,and significantly affected by four agents,namely,policies,technology,market and organization. At the same time,the development challenges facing by the hickory industry are analyzed. Its prospect is predicted as follows:(1) the extension of ecological management model and technology can effectively promote hickory sustainable management; (2) the cultivating of leading enterprises and the implementation of brand strategy can vigorously extend hickory industry chains; (3) technology innovation and application can significantly increase the development level of hickory industry.[Ch,4 fig. 2 tab. 8 ref.]
Review on China’s agricultural TFP:1989 - 2009
YU Kang, ZHANG Li, GUO Ping
2012, 29(1): 111-118. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2012.01.019
[Abstract](3226) [PDF](1569)
Chinese agricultural resources and environmental constraints are becoming more and more serious. The capability of increasing agricultural outputs through raising natural resource and factor inputs is becoming increasingly weaker. The research on agricultural TFP (total factor productivity) is significant for the sustainable agricultural development in China. This paper reviewed both domestic and overseas literature on the empirical studies of Chinas agricultural TFP during 1989-2009,especially focusing on the calculating methods,growth evolution characteristics and influence factors of Chinas agricultural TFP. There were 4 research approaches to agricultural TFP,namely,production function approach,growth accounting index approach,DEA-based Malmquist productivity index approach and SFA approach. The evolution of Chinas agricultural TFP growth had the following characteristics:technological progress was the main source of TFP growth;inter-provincial gaps in agricultural TFP growth gradually enlarged. The main factor affecting agricultural TFP growth was the institutional change in rural areas. Finally,based on the existing problems in the agricultural TFP research,the paper pointed out that the estimates of various factors impacts on the inter-provincial differences in agricultural TFP will be the direction for the future research.[Ch,2 tab. 36 ref.]
Research progress on agronomic characteristics of Miscanthus
ZHAN Wei-jun, REN Jun-xia, JIN Song-heng, HUANG You-jun, PAN Yin-hui, ZHENG Bing-song
2012, 29(1): 119-124. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2012.01.020
[Abstract](4612) [PDF](2946)
As a renewable energy crop plant,Miscanthus is one of the effective methods to solve environmental issues and energy shortages. Miscanthus is a typical perennial giant grass in the world and the highest biomass yield can reach 49 thm-2. This paper reviews Miscanthus biological characteristics,biomass yield,stress resistance,effect of water and nitrogen on its biomass and composition. The results show that nitrogen can improve Miscanthus biomass under water stress condition. Water content in the soil and tolerance to frost are two key factors for improving biomass yield of Miscanthus. Further study on breeding genotypes with high biomass,high stress tolerance and adapting to different ecological conditions is needed,which is important for solving the conventional energy shortage and environmental degradation.[Ch,35 ref.]
A review of research on Curculionidae pheromones
YANG Yi, LIANG Xiao-yu, YANG Chun-ping, YANG Hua, YANG Wei
2012, 29(1): 125-129. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2012.01.021
[Abstract](3701) [PDF](1695)
Many species of Curculionidae insect are forestry or agricultural pests making them economically important. At present,six kinds of Curculionidae pheromones have been identified in 2 genus 2 species,and an aggregation pheromone has been identified in 7 genus 12 species. In this paper,a brief overview on the study of chemical constituents,secretory position,and application of the Curculionidae pheromone,is presented to provide a reference point for further study.[Ch,1 fig. 2 tab. 20 ref.]
Scientific notes
Diversity analysis with RAPD for natural and breeding populations of Larix gmelinii
ZHANG Zhen, ZHANG Han-guo, ZHANG Lei, ZHU Hang-yong, LI Xue-feng
2012, 29(1): 130-136. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2012.01.022
[Abstract](3329) [PDF](1693)
Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers associated with phenotypic characteristics were used to analyze the genetic variation of 270 individual samples from six natural populations of Larix gmelinii (Wuyiling,Ganhe,Kuduer,Nenjiang,Moerdaoga,and Aershan). From 450 primers,23 clear RAPD primers were selected as their amplified bands with high polymorphism. The analysis included the gene diversity index,Shannons diversity index (SI),Neis gene diversity index,a cluster analysis,and a correlation analysis. Results showed 182 loci among a total of 186 were polymorphic or a percentage of polymorphism (PPB) of 97.9% having a range of 87.10%-94.09%. The gene diversity index was 0.374 3,and the genetic diversity within populations was 0.051 7 indicating that genetic variation was mainly within the population (86.19%). Mean SI was 0.482 1,and the mean for Neis index was 0.322 6. The cluster analysis revealed six populations divided into three groups (the Xiaoxingan Mountain Range,northwest of the Daxingan Mountain Range,and south of the Daxingan Mountain Range) with a genetic distance of 0.09. Genetic distance was significantly and positively correlated with geographical distance(P<0.05,r=0.768). Growth traits of the four L. gmelinii populations were 10.25%-20.78% for height,14.93%-28.37% for diameter,and 35.03%-74.36% for volume coefficients of variation. Compared with the genetic variation of breeding populations,in natural populations PPB was 5.32% greater,mean of effective alleles numbered 1.13% greater,Neis index was 4.94% greater,SI was 5.68% greater,and the populations total genetic variation 8.78% greater.[Ch,3 fig. 6 tab. 10 ref.]
Volatile organic compounds of five hedgerow plants in Hangzhou
MA Nan, ZHOU Shuai, LIN Fu-ping, GAO Yan, ZHANG Ru-min
2012, 29(1): 137-142. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2012.01.023
[Abstract](3244) [PDF](1594)
To explore differences in volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from different plants,VOCs from Ligustrum quihoui var. aureaphylla,Loropetalum chinense var. rubrum,Buxus sinica,Ilex crenata Convexa,and Ilex cornuta var. fortunei were collected using the dynamic headspace air-circulation method. The main VOCs were identified with thermal-desorption cold trap-gas chromatography-mass spectrum (TCT-GC-MS). Results showed the following major VOCs:3-hexen-1-ol,acetate (16.30%),benzaldehyde (8.30%),nonanal (5.50%),and p-methylstyrene (5.10%) in Ligustrum quihoui;3-hexen-1-ol,acetate (26.10%),-pinene (6.70%),and benzaldehyde (6.50%) in Loropetalum chinense;3-hexen1-ol,acetate (27.10%),linalool (19.70%),and 2-octene (7.20%) in B. sinica;decanal (21.60%),nonanal (13.60%),caprolactam (6.80%),and benzaldehyde (5.60%) in I. crenata;and -pinene (12.10%),decanal (9.50%),2-nonen-1-ol (7.40%),myrcene (7.20%),limonene (6.50%),2-octene (6.10%),and 6-methyl-5-heptene-2-one (6.1%) in I. cornuta. These results could provide a reference for distribution of hedges.[Ch,2 fig. 1 tab. 17 ref.]
Changes in volatile organic compounds (VOCs) during storage for Myrica rubra‘Dongkui’
ZHANG Jie, GUO Jin-xing, ZHANG Ru-zhong, WANG Xing-xing, ZHANG Xiao-ling, LIU Lin, HOU Ping, ZHANG Ru-min
2012, 29(1): 143-150. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2012.01.024
[Abstract](3989) [PDF](1639)
To determine changes in volatile organic compounds (VOCs) during storage for fruits of Myrica rubra,the composition and relative content of VOCs were analyzed using thermo desorption system-gas chromatography-mass spectrum (TDS-GC-MS). Results showed that M. rubra emitted 62 types of VOCs,mainly as terpenoids,esters,alcohols,aldehydes,and ketones,in which caryophyllene was the main compound with a relative content of 47.06%. The relative content of terpenoids showed a great difference during storage. After 4 days storage,the relative content of terpenoids was highest (95.91%) with the relative content of caryophyllene accounting for 62.74%. Measuring on the same day as picking,the relative content of aldehydes was highest with furfural and hexanal being the main components,but these decreased during storage. Alcohols first decreased and then increased with a relative content on the 6th day storage 5.80%.[Ch,3 fig. 1 tab. 23 ref.]
In vitro micropropagation of Sasa argenteastriatus
ZHANG You-zhen, LIU Qian-qian, HE Dong-don, FAN Lin, SONG Li-ling, LIN Xin-chun
2012, 29(1): 151-154. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2012.01.025
[Abstract](3713) [PDF](1635)
An efficient and reproducible protocol for large-scale micropropagation of Sasa argenteastriatus was developed with lateral buds as explants. A multiplication rate of 5.26 fold was obtained on Murashige and Skoogs (MS) medium supplemented with 3.0 mgL-1 benzyladenine (BA). MS medium supplemented with 5.0 mgl-1 indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) was most suitable for plantlet rooting. Rooted plantlets were hardened,acclimatized and transferred to artificial mixture (peat ∶ vermiculite ∶ perlite = 1 ∶ 1 ∶ 1) with over 95% survival.[Ch,2 fig. 2 tab. 15 ref.]