2011 Vol. 28, No. 6

Articles
Chemical properties and distribution of phytotoxic Al species in intensively cultivated soils of Phyllostachys praecox stands
LI Zi-chuan, ZHUANG Shun-yao, GUI Ren-yi, JI Hai-bao, LI Guo-dong, ZHENG Kang-le
2011, 28(6): 837-844. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2011.06.001
[Abstract](4152) [PDF](1273)
Abstract:
The influence of intensively cultivated Phyllostachys praecox on soil chemical properties such as soil acidity,the distribution of phytotoxic aluminum (Al)species that theoretically contribute to Al toxicity,and the contribution of Al toxicity to Ph. praecox bamboo forest damage and soil degradation were determined using a correlation analysis. We set eight stands:rice paddy field(Os) and juvenile Taxus chinensis foresty field (Tw) as controls,Ph. praecox stands that has been planted for 2,6,8,11,16 and 20 a in the town of Taihu headstream,Lin'an,China. Results indicated that due to Ph. praecox cultivation,soil pH declined from 6.53 (Os) and 5.57 (Tw) to 3.55 (Pp20) in the surface (0-10 cm) and subsurface (10-20 cm) layers,soil organic matters and cation exchange capacity (CEC) increased after organic matter mulching,and soil humus quality decreased; however,soil electrical conductivity rose in the earlier cultivation period and droped in the final phrase due to the intensity of cultivation and fertilization. The concentration of 8-hydroxyquinoline (HQN) extractable Al in the 0-10 and 10-20 cm soil layers also increased over time. The concentration of HQN extractable Al in forest soils of 16 a was 108.01 mgkg-1,which compared to the controls,was 5 times higher than Os (22.94 mgkg-1) and 10 times higher than Tw (10.08 mgkg-1). The concentration of acetic acid extractable Al had a consistent trend with the concentration of HQN extractable Al showing a highly significant positive correlation(r = 0.831 7,P 0.000 1,adjusted R2 = 0.687 4). These results suggested that Al toxicity risk in soils of intensively cultivated P. praecox stands was increasing as a result of sustained acidification. [Ch,2 fig. 4 tab. 26 ref.]
Temporal and spatial variation of soil pH and nutrient availability for Carya cathayensis orchards in Lin'an
ZHANG Chun-miao, ZHANG You-zhen, YAO Fang, ZHANG Yuan-yuan, DOU Chun-ying, YE Zheng-qian, HU Guo-liang, HUANG Jian-qin
2011, 28(6): 845-849. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2011.06.002
[Abstract](4715) [PDF](1350)
Abstract:
Carya cathayensis (Chinese hickory) is a popular nut food tree species in China. To examine soil pH and nutrient availability changes with growing seasons as well as variation in different C. cathayensis orchards established in limestone soils,a 1-year field monitoring study was conducted from March 2007 to March 2008. Surface soil samples were collected from 21 orchards in March (before sprouting),July (fruit enlargement) and September (fruit maturity),2007,and in March (before sprouting),2008,and soil pH, available nitrogen (N),available phosphorus (P),and available potassium (K)were analyzed. Results showed ranges of 4.6-8.2 for soil pH,50.8-236.2 mgkg-1 for available N,0.5-40.6 mgkg-1 for available P,and 24.8-391.0 mgkg-1 for available K. These large ranges for the results indicated that soil properties varied greatly between orchards and changed remarkably with growth seasons as well. Furthermore,over 40% of the soils with pH below 6 and great higher soil available N than soil available P and soil available K in most of the soils indicated that acute soil acidification and imbalance of soil nutrients could be a problem due to long-term intensive management. Thus,there is an urgent need to optimize soil management of C. cathayensis orchards to improve soil conditions for sustainable production. [Ch,5 tab. 14 ref.]
Soil physical and chemical properties and fruit quality with grass cover in a Myrica rubra orchard
YAN Xiao-jie, HUANG Jian-qin, QIU Zhi-min, NURAMINA Rahman, ZHU Min-hua, WU Jia-sen
2011, 28(6): 850-854.
[Abstract](4002) [PDF](983)
Abstract:
To understand the effect of grass coverage on soil nutrition and fruit quality in a Myrica rubra orchard,the effects of three treatments:mung beans,natural grass,and clean tillage at the 0-20 cm and 20-40 cm depth-in the main producing areas of Xianju County,Zhejiang Province were investigated. After three years,the soil and fruit of M. rubra were collected and analyzed using a correlation analysis. Results showed that soil pH increased with grass cultivation,and compared with clean tillage,for the 0-20 cm soil depth,there were increases in organic matters (25.2%- 48.9%),available N (7.3%-10.5%),and available P (82.1%-291.1%). Compared with clean tillage, production of M. rubra for the other two treatments increased 1 350-2 250 kghm-2 with increases in soluble solids (6.7%-20.0%), vitamin C (42.6%-51.1%),reducing sugars (17.0%-25.1%),and total sugar content (9.7%-14.9%). However,total acids decreased 16.5%-35.4%. The soluble solid content (SSC) / titratable acidity (TA) ratio increased 4.2%-6.2%. Also,the correlation analysis showed a significant correlation between soil organic matter and quality of M. rubra. Since grass coverage and no-tillage could increase soil organic matter,these treatments could improve the quality of M. rubra.[Ch,3 tab. 18 ref.]
Simulated nitrogen dynamics for a Cunninghamia lanceolata plantation with selected rotation ages
XIN Zan-hong, JIANG Hong, JIE Cheng-yue, WEI Xiao-hua, BLANCO Juan, ZHOU Gou-mo
2011, 28(6): 855-862.
[Abstract](3989) [PDF](1132)
Abstract:
To show nitrogen dynamics for successive rotations of Cunninghamia lanceolata plantations with declining productivity and the affect on sustainable management,the FORECAST model was used to simulate 200 years of growth for Cunninghamia lanceolata plantations with different rotation ages in China. Results suggested that N uptake,N return to the soil,and foliar N content could increase with a longer rotation age. The model showed that soil available N decreased with a 25-year rotation age and then increased with longer rotation ages. With the medium site,the average soil available N was 96.24 kghm-2 for a 10-year rotation age,86.87 kghm-2 for a 25-year rotation age,and 96.07 kghm-2 for a 50-year rotation age; the average uptake N was 49.22 kghm-2 for a 10-year rotation age,58.44 kghm-2 for a 25-year rotation age,and 69.07 kghm-2 for a 50-year rotation age;and the average return of N to the soil was 26.75 kghm-2 for a 10-year rotation age,44.76 kghm-2 for a 25-year rotation age,and 60.74 kghm-2 for a 50-year rotation age. The recycled N ratios from the first four rotations were 0.544,0.766,0.847,and 0.879. [Ch,6 fig. 1 tab. 34 ref.]
Multi-scale effects of spatial correlation for vegetative landscape types in the Wuyishan Nature Reserve
ZHANG Chun-ying, ZHANG Chun-ling, LIN Xiao-xia, HU Shai-qiang, HE Chun-ling, GE Xin-chi
2011, 28(6): 863-869. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2011.06.005
[Abstract](4461) [PDF](1117)
Abstract:
Using a binary contingency table,a variance ratio test,and a correlation analysis,multi-scale effects of spatial correlation for vegetative landscape types in the Wuyishan Nature Reserve were studied. Results showed that the spatial correlation intensity for landscape types changed as the spatial scale changed,with the spatial correlation of different landscape types changing to different extents. The best scale to study this area was a 600 m600 m spatial scale using landscape patch types. The overall association of landscape patch types showed a negative correlation for the first class,but a positive correlation for the second and third classes[Ch,3 tab. 13 ref.]
Developing plant landscape designs through simulation of natural plant communities in Handan
REN Bin-bin, FENG Jiu-ying, LI Shu-hua
2011, 28(6): 870-877. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2011.06.006
[Abstract](4493) [PDF](1191)
Abstract:
As the popularity of rural landscape construction has grown, plant landscape design through simulation of a natural plant community has drawn more attention. Based on simulation of the natural plant communities,the rural construction of plant landscape was studied. Using Mount Motianling in Handan as the research site,Systematic Sampling Method for sampling forest communities was adopted. Then,Two-Way Indicator Species Analysis (TWINSPAN) was employed on the quadrat data. Results revealed that communities could be classified into 13 types based on the different indictor species of tree and shrub layers. All the 13 communities were natural secondary forest. Then,the layered structures and external characteristics of the 13 communities were analyzed,and by applying landscape art principles and plant theories,natural plant communities were simulated to make plant landscape design models for urban open green spaces,such as Prunus davidiana+Prunus sibirica-Forsythia suspense-Carex lanceolata. This research could help developing ecological landscape architecture through protection forests,forest plantings,and group plantings in urban open green spaces.[Ch,1 fig. 2 tab. 16 ref.]
Division of high conservation value forest based on forest management of county level
SUN Meng-jun, XU Jun
2011, 28(6): 878-883. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2011.06.007
[Abstract](4302) [PDF](1158)
Abstract:
The management concept of high conservation value forest is relatively new idea. The approach and application of the concept in our country has just started,so it is lack of a uniform identification criterion and division system for our country. We found out the relation and distinction between the division system of high conservation value forest and forest management on county level in domestic by comparing and analyzing. A division method by combining the both systems organically is put forward. This method not only enhances and supplies the original forest management division system,but also improves efficiency and reduces waste by avoiding the division results caused by two isolated systems.[Ch,1 fig. 1 tab. 13 ref.]
Research and implementation of cooperative information system for forest and greening inventory in Beijing
HUANG Shui-sheng, XIE Yang-sheng, TANG Xiao-ming, WANG Jin-zeng
2011, 28(6): 884-892. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2011.06.008
[Abstract](4171) [PDF](1100)
Abstract:
With the number of metropolises increased and the scale of them expanded,biological environment problems are becoming increasingly conspicuous in Beijing in recent decades. As the important natural infrastructure to preserve the ecological environment of metropolis,the cooperative monitoring of forest and greening resources becomes more and more urgent. As an important part of forest and greening resources monitoring,the cooperative management of forests and greening inventory is an important foundation. This paper analyzes the problems of cooperation of forest and greening inventory,constructs the architecture of cooperative information system,illustrates the key techniques of the system,and at last gives the implementation of the system. The implementation of the cooperative information system is the first step and a foundation for the collaborative management of forest and greening,which gives a support to the first cooperative survey of forest and greening of Beijing.[Ch,10 fig. 2 tab. 12 ref.]
Spectral reflectance of leaves for Phyllostachys pubescens at different canopy layers using a 4th order derivative
DONG Da-chuan, KONG Zhen, YANG Wei-xi, LI Shuang-shuang, GAO Rong-fu, GAO Pei-jun
2011, 28(6): 893-899. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2011.06.009
[Abstract](4030) [PDF](1220)
Abstract:
To determine how Phyllostachys pubescens (moso bamboo),a highly efficient photosynthetic plant,efficiently used solar energy and what changes occurred with different light environments,the spectral reflectance of Ph. pubescens leaves was measured in different directions,heights,and ages. There were 36 treatments were set,and 108 samples in total. Then,raw data was processed with Origin 8.0 software using a 4th order derivative. Derivative processing was utilized to decompose overlapped peaks so the derived spectra could improve the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the crude data leading to better qualitative and quantitative analysis. Results showed that in shade conditions,the proportion of chlorophyll changed,chlorophyll a/b declined,and carotenoids and xanthophylls accumulated. Also,potential photosynthesis decreased as Ph. pubescens grew. These results suggested that sun leaves and upper leaves have higher utilization of photosynthesis.[Ch,3 fig. 1 tab. 24 ref.]
Cloning and expression analysis of a flowering-related gene,OAP 3,in Oncidium
XU Xiao-yan, TIAN Min, WANG Cai-xia, LONG Ming-hua
2011, 28(6): 900-906. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2011.06.010
[Abstract](3780) [PDF](1159)
Abstract:
To investigate the expression pattern of MADS-box gene during the development of the orchids flower,the floral organ identity gene OAP 3 with a MADS-box motif was cloned from an orchid plant through the RT-PCR,OncidiumMilliongolds(GenBank accession No.GU644447). Then a sequence analysis and a phylogenetic analysis were conducted along with a quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). The full length cDNA of OAP 3 was 799 bp with an open reading frame(ORF) encoding 204 amino acids. The deduced amino acids sequence contained a typical MADS domain and a K domain,and the sequence analysis indicated that OAP 3 shared 50%-78% homology in the amino acid sequence with Arabidopsis thaliana and other species of APETALA3 homologues. The phylogenetic analysis suggested that OAP 3 belonged to the B gene,but four consensus motifs identified in the C-terminal region of the B group genes were absent in the OAP 3 gene. The qRT-PCR analysis showed that OAP 3 mRNA increased with flower bud development,as well as in all four floral organs,vegetative leaves,and shoots.[Ch,5 fig. 1 tab. 17 ref.]
Principal component analysis for major economic characteristics of Carya illinoensis and selection of superior cultivars
YANG Jian-hua, LI Shu-fang, FAN Zhi-yuan, XI Xue-liang, ZOU Wei-lie, LIU Jiao, PAN Li
2011, 28(6): 907-910. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2011.06.011
[Abstract](4228) [PDF](1320)
Abstract:
Based on a specimen correlation matrix,eight major economic characteristics,including fruit shape coefficient,average nut weight,shell thickness of the nut,kernel ratio,kernel weight,kernel fat content,protein content,and fruit yield per square meter of projected tree crown area,for 12 cultivars of Carya illinoensis were determined using a principal component analysis. Results according to more than 83.99% of the cumulative variance,showed that the three principal components and their functional equations were:kernel ratio,average nut weight,kernel fat content. Key principal component values of various cultivars were:kernel ratio(43.329%). Superior cultivars were determined as average nut weight with the results being similar to a practical phenotype. [Ch,1 fig. 4 tab. 6 ref.]
Somatic embryogenesis and plant regeneration from Carya cathayensis embryos using different carbon sources
HU Heng-kang, JIANG Xiang-mei, ZHANG Qi-xiang, CHEN Bei, HUANG Jian-qin
2011, 28(6): 911-917. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2011.06.012
[Abstract](3920) [PDF](1095)
Abstract:
A process for studying somatic embryogenesis and plant regeneration in vitro from immature embryos of Carya cathayensis,which were 10-12 weeks post-pollination,was developed. To select a carbon source (glucose,sucrose,trehalose,and maltose) for embryonic callus,a single-factor experimental design was used. Then,the optimal concentration of glucose (10,20,40,60 and 80 gL-1) was determined. Also,for somatic embryogenesis,the best carbon source was decided. Then,the optimal sucrose concentrations (15,30,45,60 and 75 gL-1) for somatic embryogenesis and for somatic embryo germination were determined. Results showed that the embryogenic callus induction rate of immature embryos inoculated in the medium supplemented with glucose was significantly higher (P<0.05) than sucrose,trehalose,and maltose. Embryogenic callus percentage was significantly greater (P<0.05) with 20 gL-1 glucose with a 50.0%. For somatic embryogenesis of immature embryos,sucrose as a carbon source was significantly better(P<0.05) than glucose,trehalose,and maltose. Somatic embryogenesis induction was significantly higher (P<0.05) with 45 gL-1 sucrose. For somatic embryo germination,a basal woody plant medium (WPM) supplemented with 5 gL-1 sucrose was significantly higher (P<0.05) than other concentrations. [Ch, 6 fig. 26 ref.]
Introducing the interspecific hybridization cultivars of Paeonia in Northeast China
ZHUANG Qian, ZHAO Li-qun, ZHU Song-yan
2011, 28(6): 918-921. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2011.06.013
[Abstract](4308) [PDF](1132)
Abstract:
An experiment was conducted to study morphologic characters,phenology and adaptability of three interspecific hybridization culitivars (Section Moutan DC.) introduced from Missouri of USA in Heilongjiang forest botanical garden. They were Paeonia High Noon,Renown and Souvenir de Maxime Cornu. Results showed that the adaptability of three interspecific hybridization varieties was good. The plants were doing well with the thick branches. The over-wintering buds were ruddy and plump. The flowers were bright-colored and beautiful. Each had its own characteristics. The florescence was later than that of Paeonia suffruticosa and Paeonia lactiflora in introducing regions which extended the ornamental period of Paeonia of the whole here. There was of great value for appreciation and application.[Ch,3 tab. 7 ref.]
Evaluation and selection for avenue tree in Yunnan,China
ZHANG Xue-xing, SHI Ying, ZHOU Zhu, SHAO Jin-ping, LI Li-quan, TAN Dong, HE Rong, LIU Yun-cai
2011, 28(6): 922-926. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2011.06.014
[Abstract](11201) [PDF](1199)
Abstract:
This study was conducted to establish a comprehensive system of evaluation and application of avenue trees in southern subtropical,northern-subtropical,and temperate cities of Yunnan. The methodology employed consultation and evaluation from garden experts with consideration for ecological adaptation and function as well as ornamental tree value. Using the devised evaluation system,the main evaluation indices of cold resistance,drought resistance,anti-pollution capacity,absorption capacity for toxic gases,anti-insect capacity,tree and crown architecture,ornamental quality,and leaf number and display were analyzed. Forty-two native tree species were evaluated by integrative performance and graded for cities with climatic types in Yunnan. Results showed that for a northern subtropical climate,13 tree species were graded as class Ⅰ,9 species as class Ⅱ,and 1 species as class Ⅲ;for a temperate climate 6 tree species were graded as class Ⅰ,3 species as class Ⅲ,and 1 species as class Ⅳ;and in a southern subtropical zone,12 tree species were classified as class Ⅰ,2 species as class Ⅱ,3 species as class Ⅲ,and 1 species as class Ⅳ.[Ch,3 tab. 10 ref.]
Relationship between Valsa sordida and abnormal coldness in spring
YU Hai-ying, CHAI Shou-quan, ZHOU Yu-jiang, ZHAO Jun
2011, 28(6): 927-930. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2011.06.015
[Abstract](3942) [PDF](1004)
Abstract:
Abnormal coldness in spring from 1997 to 2010 in Liaoning was classified into four levels of low-grade,secondary-grade,third-grade and serious in this paper. The relationship between the incidence of Valsa sordida and the different level of abnormal coldness in spring was also analyzed. The results showed that there was positive correlation between the total area of disease and abnormal coldness in spring (P<0.05),the same positive correlation with the moderate and serious disease area (P<0.01),and no significant level was achieved with the mild disease area (P>0.05). There was negative correlation between abnormal coldness in spring and the mild disease incidence rate (P<0.01) and positive correlation with the moderate and severe disease incidence rate (P<0.01). The year of severe abnormal coldness in spring matched with large acreage disease incidence of Valsa sordida and the more severe the coldness,the more obviously the acreage and incidence of moderate and serious disease increased. [Ch,4 tab. 10 ref.]
Thermal performance of several wood-plastic composite (WPC) walls
DONG Sheng-zhong, WANG Mei-yan, SUN Gang-qiang, YANG Fei, ZHANG Yi-liang, XU Shao-chun, WU Hang-dong, ZHOU Qu-long
2011, 28(6): 931-936. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2011.06.016
[Abstract](3455) [PDF](1087)
Abstract:
Wood-plastic composites (WPCs),in regards to ornamentation,processing,installation,and physical and mechanical performance,have favorable energy efficiency qualities for residential buildings. To analyze newly developed residential building materials,a heat flow meter method was used to measure the heat transmission coefficient of five walls:[W1. common brick wall (CBW)(10 mm cement mortar+240 mm common brick + 10 mm cement mortar);W2.(CBW+40 mm WPC keel+20 mm WPC board);W3.(CBW+40 mm WPC keel+25 mm polyurethane foam sprayed on the WPC board+20 mm WPC board);W4.(CBW+40 mm WPC keel+30 mm WPC board filled with polyurethane foam);and W5.(CBW+20 mm WPC keel+60 mm WPC board filled with polyurethane foam)] and two kinds of single-material walls:[60 and 120 mm single-material boards (SMBs)]. These walls were compared with reference to design standard (JGJ 134-2010) for energy efficiency of residential buildings in hot summer and cold winter zones. Results showed that:(1)W1 did not meet the new thermal specification requirements. (2)When the building shape coefficient was0.4,all four composite walls (W2-W5) met requirements. However,when the building shape coefficient was>0.4,W2 did not meet requirements,whereas W3-W5 did. (3)W3 had the minimum heat transmission coefficient and best thermal performance with the most inexpensive and most rational structure. (4)Compared with composite walls,single-material walls were thin and light weight with high thermal insulation performance. The 60 mm SMBs met the lowest thermal technology requirement for the inner partition wall, and the 120 mm SMBs met the thermal technology requirement for the outer wall. Thus,single-material walls were more suitable for use as partition walls. [Ch, 3 fig. 3 tab. 10 ref.]
A method for wood surface defect detection based on mixed texture features
YIN Jian-xin, QI Heng-nian, FENG Hai-lin, DU Xiao-chen
2011, 28(6): 937-942. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2011.06.017
[Abstract](4464) [PDF](1287)
Abstract:
It is important to detect the wood surface defects using computer vision technology. In this paper,a defect detection method which can accurately and robustly determine whether there is defect on wood surface image or not is proposed based on mixed texture features. At first,gray level co-occurrence matrix(GLCM),Gabor filtering and invariant moment method are used to extract 10 image scale,translation,rotation invariant and texture features optimally. Then,feature vectors are mixed effectively. Finally,BP artificial neural network is used to train the sample sets and detection based on the mixed texture features. Experiments show that the proposed method can detect surface defects of wood boards accurately and the average success rate of detection is 96.2%.[Ch,4 fig. 1 tab. 12 ref.]
Carbon-fixing oriented management patterns of Phyllostachys pubescens and their benefits
WANG Xi-feng, SHEN Yue-qin, WANG Feng, ZHENG Xu-li, HU Zhong-ming
2011, 28(6): 943-948. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2011.06.018
[Abstract](6406) [PDF](7602)
Abstract:
Based on data collected in interviews from related specialists and forest company manager,together with secondhand information,such as the costs-benefits and current management measures,characteristics and benefits of carbon-fixing oriented management pattern versus current management pattern for Phyllostachys pubescens (moso bamboo) were analyzed using a comparative analysis and the payback period method. Results showed that differences between carbon-fixing oriented and current management patterns were mainly reflected in management goals and common management measures. Carbon-fixing oriented management pattern was aimed at maximizing fixed carbon in the ecological system,especially in the tree layer,the management measures required both an increase in fixed carbon in the stand and a decrease in carbon leakage and carbon discharge due to utilization;whereas the current management pattern aimed at the maximizing the output of bamboo poles and shoots,no regarding the carbon issues. The costs of manual control,organic fertilizer,daily management,and carbon measurement were relatively high for the carbon-fixing oriented management pattern,but chemical fertilizer cost was relatively low with output value of stand products,such as bamboo poles and shoots,being high. For the carbon-fixing oriented management pattern,the payback period was sensitive to a carbon price being reduced from 18.4 years with a zero cost to 13.2 years when the price was US$25.20t-1 (the current international carbon trade price on 2008). Ecological and social benefits,such as conserving soil and water,preventing site degradation,increasing job opportunities for local farmers,and disseminating carbon knowledge were also benefits of the carbon-fixing oriented P. pubescens management pattern. [Ch,5 tab. 11 ref.]
Research on satisfactory degree of senior summer tourists
YAO Zhao-bin, GAO Yong, ZHAN Min, ZHANG Jian-guo
2011, 28(6): 949-952. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2011.06.019
[Abstract](4046) [PDF](1109)
Abstract:
Senior summer tourists have become a none-ignorable group in the tourist market,which also have an important social significance. Tourists' satisfaction will affect their impressions of the destination and consequently affect the development of the tourism. Village Xi Tianmu,Lin'an of Zhejiang Province was chosen as the site for study,the first-hand data were collected through surveying with senior summer tourists,then fuzzy analytic hierarchy process(FAHP)was taken to evaluate the six elements of the tourists' satisfaction. The general conclusion of the overall satisfaction to the tourism according to satisfaction order is accommodation food transportation environment shopping entertainment. Based on the analysis of the six elements,the authors propose the following suggestions,namely,improving the infrastructure for the senior tourists,improving the service levels and the environments,enhancing the sanitary work,feedback system and brand building. [Ch,2 tab. 18 ref.]
Reviews
Review of surface oxidizing modification of activated carbon and influence on adsorption capacity
WU Guang-qian, SUN Xin-yuan, ZHANG Qi-sheng
2011, 28(6): 955-961. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2011.06.020
[Abstract](4383) [PDF](1446)
Abstract:
The surface characteristics and chemical properties of activated carbon are important factors to determine the adsorption capacity. These two factors can be changed through certain surface oxidizing modification technology of activated carbon,and the adsorption capacity can be affected as well. The principle of surface oxidizing modification technology of activated carbon is introduced;the literatures of native and foreign researchers in recent years are summarized and reviewed. These studies showed that the surface area and pore volume decreased after the modification,while the number of surface oxygen-containing groups increased greatly. The surface oxidizing modification was helpful to the adsorption capacity of modified activated carbon to specific heavy metals,but it also has some negative effect on the adsorption of organic matters. The future development of surface oxidizing modification technology of activated carbon is also suggested at the end of this paper. [Ch,1 fig. 40 ref.]
Research on the evaluation of garden plant landscapes
ZHANG Zhe, PAN Hui-tang
2011, 28(6): 962-967. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2011.06.021
[Abstract](4998) [PDF](1606)
Abstract:
Landscape plants will not only help improve the ecological benefits of green spaces but also create a healthy living environment. Landscape plants are playing more and more important roles in the urban landscaping. The evaluations of plants landscapes have become a hot research topic. This paper reviews the research findings on the evaluations of garden plants landscapes both at home and abroad,analyzes the evaluation characteristics of AHP,SBE,Psycho-Physiological Indicator (PPI),BIB-LCJ and SD and their applications in the evaluations of garden plants landscapes. It also proposes the landscapes suitable for the 5 evaluation methods and points out the existing problems in the evaluations of garden plants landscapes. Finally,the prospects and values of plants landscapes evaluations in China are discussed. [Ch,1 fig. 1 tab. 45 ref.
Review on tissue culture of Aralia plants
CHENG Ying, LI Gen-you, XIA Guo-hua, HUANG Shang-jue, HUANG Yu-feng
2011, 28(6): 968-972. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2011.06.022
[Abstract](4871) [PDF](1228)
Abstract:
This paper reviews the main research progress on tissue culture of Aralia. The explants,medium and plant growth regulators (PGRs) have important impacts on Aralias callus culture,adventitious bud and somatic embryogenesis. Leaf blade,leaf stalk,young stem,apical bud,cotyledon and inflorescence can all be used as explants in primary culture. Leaf blade and young stem are the most commonly used explants. Aralia is usually cultured in solid media and liquid media. Liquid media is commonly used for somatic embryos culture. MS (Murashige-Skoog) is a common basic medium for in vitro culture. The types,concentrations of PGRs,and their combinations in the medium are key factors for Aralia in vitro culture. Thereinto,auxin is the main factor for callus induction,ABA is used for synchronization for somatic embryogenesis. Rooting is easy to plantlets in vitro and plantlets adapted well to cultural substrate under normal acclimatization and transplants. Research on molecular regulation of somatic embryogenesis of Aralia is still in a preliminary stage.[Ch,1 tab,26 ref.]
Discussion
Status and conservation strategies for germplasm resources of wild Camellia chekiangoleosa
XIE Yun, LI Ji-yuan, PAN Wen-ying, WANG Ye-zhong, LI Chao-dong
2011, 28(6): 973-981. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2011.06.023
[Abstract](4564) [PDF](1230)
Abstract:
To find the geographical distribution,growing environment,endangered species status,and threatening factors of wild Camellia chekiangoleosa,and to determine the extent of its germplasm resource; experts,technicians,and farmers were visited;literature and herbariums were consulted;and fields were surveyed,the community structure was investigated and statistical analysis was conducted. Results showed that wild C. chekiangoleosa was concentrated in the Wuyi and Huaiyu Mountains from 2550-3100 N and 11352-12102 E with its vertical distribution between 360-1 600 m above sea level. The resources are aging and degraded,and more serious by human interference. Wild resources were close to endangered because they were cut,burned,and dug for mountain development,firewood,and landscape utility,thereby rapidly decreasing the distribution area and number of trees. Thus,conservation strategies: such as conservation in original sites or off-site,formulating protection and punishment policies,and monographic studies,should be undertaken to protect the germplasm resources of wild C. chekiangoleosa. [Ch,1 fig. 2 tab. 42 ref.]
Scientific notes
Optimization of a rooting culture system for Rhododendron fortunei
GAO Hang-yang, ZHANG Qi-xiang, HU Heng-kang, ZHANG Zhen-ru, HUANG Jian-qin
2011, 28(6): 982-985. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2011.06.024
[Abstract](4787) [PDF](1110)
Abstract:
To establish a micro propagation of Rhododendron fortunei,in vitro shoots were used as the explants to establish a rooting system for Rhododendron fortunei. Effects on the basal mediums [1/2 woody plant medium (WPM),Murashige Skoog (MS),1/2MS,and 1/4MS)],auxins [naphthalene-acetic acid (NAA) and indole-3-butyric acid (IBA)],and sucrose during adventitious root induction were comparatively analyzed by a split plot design experimental design. Results showed that in vitro shoots of R. fortunei inoculated in 1/2 WPM basal medium were significantly higher (P<0.05) than treatments of MS,1/2 MS,and 1/4 MS basal medium,with a rooting percentage of 100%. In vitro shoots for 1/2 MS basal medium supplemented with 2.0 mgL-1 NAA were significantly higher (P<0.05) than other NAA treatments with a root percentage of 100%. In vitro shoots in 1/2 MS basal medium supplemented with 0.5 mgL-1 IBA were significantly higher (P< 0.05) than other IBA treatments with a root percentage of 100%. The result showed that Rhododendron fortunei the optimal con-centration of sucrose was 5 gL-1,which was significantly higher (P<0.05) than other sucrose treatments with a rooting percentage of 90.67%. Thus,the optimal rooting medium for R. fortunei was 1/2 WPM + 2.0 mgL-1 NAA + 5.0 gL-1 sucrose. [Ch,1 fig. 1 tab. 10 ref.]
Diurnal variation of volatile organic compounds emitted from Cinnamomum camphora flowers
ZHOU Shuai, MA Nan, LIN Fu-ping, ZHANG Ru-min, GAO Yan
2011, 28(6): 986-991. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2011.06.025
[Abstract](4415) [PDF](1219)
Abstract:
In order to make clear the diurnal variation of plant volatiles,we collected the VOCs from Cinnamomum camphora flowers using the dynamic headspace air-circulation method at 7:30,10:00,12:30,15:00 and 17:30,identified the main compounds of VOCs with thermal desorption system/gas chromatography/mass spectrum (TDS-GC-MS). Results showed that C. camphora flowers emitted 51 types of VOCs,mainly as terpenoids. At 15:00,species and emission of the VOCs were highest (40 species and 8 049.5 peak area units),mainly as linalool (relative content 37.0%),epoxylinalol (12.7%), (Z-ocimene (7.2%) and perillene(6.2%). Thus,increases in species and emissions of the VOCs from C. camphora flowers at 15:00 are both visibly increased revealed a possible affinity have strong relevance for strong light and high temperature stress. [Ch,3 fig. 1 tab. 15 ref.]
Gymnocoronis:a new naturalized genus in Eastern China
GAO Hao-jie, CHEN Zheng-hai
2011, 28(6): 992-994. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2011.06.026
[Abstract](3827) [PDF](1203)
Abstract:
Gymnocoronis DC.,a new naturalized genus in Eastern China was discovered in Gaoting Town,Daishan,Zhejiang Province. G. spilanthoides (D. Don ex Hook. et Arn.) DC. is a perennial hydrophyte or hygrophyte herb,which grows in the pool or in the roadside grass. Perhaps the frequent overseas trade is one reason of this plants invasion. This plant mainly invade into Eastern China by cargo,tourists,transportation,etc.The dangers of this plant are (1) seriously affect the normal growth of other plants and enormously reduce the biodiversity;(2) easily block the channel of the river;(3) may badly affect the wetland landscape. The suggestion is that we should strengthen the quarantine,do well monitoring and widely publicity and make positive contributions to prevent and cure.[Ch,1 fig. 3 ref.]