2014 Vol. 31, No. 4
To study the growth-promoting mechanisms of Burkholderia multivorans WS-FJ9 on poplars, photosynthetic indexes[net photosynthetic rate (Pn), transpiration rate (Tr), stomatal conductance (Gs), and intercellular CO2 concentration (Ci)] and fluorescence parameters[Fv/Fm, ΦPSⅡ, total chlorophyll (TChl), and Chla/Chlb] of NL-895 poplar (Populus×euramericana NL-895)leaves inoculated with a strain of WS-FJ9 were determined by a portable photosynthetic apparatus (LI-6400XT). Simultaneously, chlorophyll content of poplar leaves, seedling height, ground diameter, and biomass were measured. Results showed that during the treatment period (150 days), Pn, Tr and Gs all increased earlier and decreased later with Pn and Tr higher, and Gi lower than control groups (P < 0.05). At the 30th day, Gs was lower and after the 60th day higher than the control groups (P < 0.05); whereas Gi was reversed. The fluorescence parameters Fv/Fm, ΦPSⅡ, TChl, and Chla/Chlb were higher than the control groups (P < 0.05). At the 150th day, seedling height, ground diameter, and biomass were also greater than the control groups (P < 0.05). This study illustrated the growth-promoting mechanisms of strain WS-FJ9 on NL-895 poplar from the perspective of photosynthesis and biomass, provided a reference basis for development and utilization of bio-bacterial manure, and could be of great importance in popularizing sustainable agriculture.
The pyrolysis characteristic and kinetics of bamboo holo-celluloce with different heating rate (5.0, 10.0, 15.0, 20.0 and 30.0℃·min-1) were investigated using TG-FTIR. TG/DTG curves showed that the pyrolysis process of bamboo holo-celluloce was divided into three stages named drying, fast degradation and slow degradation. With the increase of heating rate, the TG/DTG curves moved toward the side of higher temperature region. And the main components of volatiles were small moleculars, CO, H2O, CH4 and CO2, also along with kinds of organics, such as aldehydes, ketones, organic acids, alkanes, alcohols, phenols. The fluctuation of activation energy can be interpreted as a result of multiple, parallel and simultaneous reaction occoured in the pyrolysis process. The Model-free methods, namely Flynn-Wall-Ozawa (FWO) integral method and Kissinger-Akahira-Sunose(KAS) integral method, were used to research the pyrolysis kinetics. The results showed that with increasing conversion rate, the activation energy of bamboo holocellulose first increased, next decreased and then increased. These changes of activation energy were determined by the pyrolysis characteristics of cellulose and hemicellulose.
The timber segregation method was conducted to study the morphological features of wood fiber in two provenances of Eucalyptus dunnii. Results showed the linear correlation between DBH and fiber length and the linear correlation between DBH and fiber width were unremarkable. A roughly normal distribution was observed in fiber length with an average fiber length for the A provenance of 986.44 μm and for the B provenance of 908.91 μm. For fiber lengths of A and B provenances the number of fibers ranged from 700-1 700 μm accounting for 97.11% (for A) and 86.67% (for B) of the total fiber numbers. The fibers exhibited a broad distribution at the individual level, and the fiber length increased gradually from the pith outward. The average fiber widths were 25.71 μm (for A) and 19.30 μm (for B) with the A provenance gradually increasing from pith to bark, but the B provenance gradually decreasing. The average length-to-width ratio of A was 42.94:1 and B was 47.13:1; whereas the ratios of cell-wall thickness were 13.44 μm (for A) and 9.40 μm (for B). The average ratios of double wall thickness to diameter for both provenances were greater than 1 with some less than 1 at the individual level. The broad fiber distribution at the individual level meant it was possible to improve fiber length, and the length-to-width ratio and the ratio of cell-wall thickness indicated that E. dunnii was suitable for use as pulpwood. A further study on the genetic improvement of E. dunnii wood property is needed in order to make its fiber characteristics reach the excellent pulpwood standard.
To develop more universal molecular markers for grasses, rich genetic information of bamboo plants and 14 pairs of primers were designed according to the conserved regions of the single-copy orthologous (COS Ⅱ) genes of the Poaceae (grass) family. Then, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to test five bamboo accessions. Also, Primer 1 and Primer 2 were used to sequence parts of the amplified products, and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) sites were validated with the PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) test. Based on different band styles amplified with the 14 primer pairs, genetic distance was calculated with NT sys 2.10e software and a cluster analysis of five species:Phyllostachys edulis, Ph. viridiglaucescens, Ph. nigra, Ph. violascens, and Ph. vivax f. aureocaulis were conducted. Results showed that all primers exhibited specific PCR products in at least one sample. Seven pairs of primers were able to amplify the products in tested samples with 13(92.9%) pairs of primers exhibiting polymorphic PCR products in all samples. Sequencing showed that Primer 1 and Primer 2 were homologous. These sequences were amplified with the same primer and existed at SNP sites. Some SNP sites led to early termination of the amino acid sequence, and some resulted in changes of restriction endonuclease sites. Results of the PCR-RFLP test corresponded with the sequencing. The cluster analysis indicated that Ph. edulis and Ph. viridiglaucescens were closely clustered, and Ph. nigra was the most isolated. Overall, this classification coincided with morphological classification; so, these molecular markers were suitable for application in genetic analyses and other related research with Phyllostachys.
3-deoxy-D-manno-octulosonate (KDO) 8-phosphate synthase (KDO8PS)[EC 220.127.116.11] is the rate-limiting enzyme in the KDO biosynthetic pathway. In this study, the KDO8PS gene (3-deoxy-d-manno-octulosonate-8-phosphate synthase) was cloned from fresh Phyllostachys edulis seedlings using Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Amino acid sequence alignment analysis of the KDO-8P synthase from different organisms and tissue specific expression analysis by semi-quantitative RT-PCR were conducted. After, PeKDO8PS was recombined into the expressed pET-28a vector and over expressed in Escherichia coli. Then the fusion protein was purified through using a two-steps purification strategy including nickel affinity and size exclusion chromatography (SEC). Results showed that the open reading frame was 876 bp encoding a protein consisting of 291 amino acid residues. The PeKDO-8P synthase had high similarity with KDO-8P synthase from plants such as AtkdsA2 from Arabidopsis thaliana, while low identities from microorganism. The tissue specific expression analysis showed much higher gene expression in roots than in stems and leaves which was similar to AtkdsA2 from Arabidopsis thaliana. Finally, the chromatography analysis showed that the PeKDO8PS protein mainly existed as dimmer in 30 mmmol·L-1 Tris-HCl pH 8.0, 200 mmol·L-1 NaCl, from which the growth of preliminary screening protein crystallization condition was obtained. These works provide the first step for its structure determination.
To evaluation the methylation status of different immature embryo stages of Carya cathayensis, DNA methylation variety was detected on immature embryos of Carya cathayensis, and an inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) analysis was performed to reveal the DNA methylation in five developmental stages of immature embryos (9-13 weeks post pollination). Results revealed 128 bands obtained from 17 primers. With development of the immature embryos, the methylation percentage from 9 to 13 weeks post pollination increased gradually from 23.4% to 25.8%, 28.9%, 40.6%, and then 42.2%. Also, total DNA methylation (7.8%, 8.6%, 16.4%, 24.2%, and 25.0%) and half DNA methylation (15.6%, 17.2%, 12.5%, 16.4%, and 17.2%) existed. Thus, there was DNA methylation variety with the development of the immature embryos of Carya cathayensis(P < 0.01).
To promote collection and the effective conservation of Carya illinoensis (pecan) pollen, male flowering habits and pollen vigor in four developmental stages with different storage conditions[a) room temperature, b) room temperature and dry; c) 4℃, d) 4℃ and dry; e) -70℃, and f) -70℃ and dry] were observed using the fluorochromatic reaction (FCR) method. Results showed that on April 26th the bract in the catkins had cracked. By May 6th the anthers had turned from green to yellow; between May 7th and 9th, the pollen sac split shedding catkin pollen. As of May 8th about 75% of the shedding had occurred, and on May 10th when the catkins turned brown and fell from the trees, shedding was complete. The sequence for pollen viability was beginning of shedding> early shedding> heavy shedding> final shedding with storage durability for the pollen having the same order. Pollen viability for different storage conditions followed decay curves, but differences were noted with -70℃ and dry> -70℃> 4℃ and dry> 4℃> room temperature and dry> room temperature. Also, as storage time increased, pollen viability gradually decreased. The fastest decline in pollen viability was at room temperature, and after 50 d the pollen had completely lost its vitality. When stored at 4℃, the pollen had mostly lost its vitality after 120 d. The best condition was preservation at -70℃ where pollen was still 43.55% viable after 360 d.
The suitable technology of extracting flavonoids from Chenopodium quinoa leaves using the ethanol reflux extraction method, as well as the analysis of flavonoid content with genotypic variation, were studied in the paper. The research aims to provide theoretical basis for flavonids exploitation from C. quinoa and high-flavonoid variety screening. The effect of each factor such as ethanol concentration, extracting time and ratio of sample with ethanol solution on flavonoid extraction from C. quinoa was investigated using the orthogonal design L9(33) test. Moreover, flavonoids from C. quinoa leaves of ten different genotypes were extracted by the optimum extraction method and were subsequently analyzed for averages and coefficient of variation (CV). Results showed that optimum extracting conditions consisted of an extracting reagent of 70% ethanol, an extracting temperature of water-based heating of 80℃, a ratio of the leaf power to reagent of 1:40, and an extraction time of 0.5 h. For the extraction rate of falvonoids from C. quinoa leaves extracting time> ethanol concentration> ratio of sample to the ethanol solution. In one extraction cycle with optimum extracting conditions, the flavonoid extraction rate reached more than 85%. Additionally, extraction yields of flavonoids from different genotypes different with cultivar 'PI814932' having the highest flavonoid extraction rate (0.933%). The average extraction rate of flavonids from leaves of the ten tested varieties was 0.619%, and the CV was up to 34.44%. Hence, the ethanol reflux extraction method was suitable for flavonoid extraction from C. quinoa leaves.
Biochar with a huge active surface area can absorb anions, such as nitrate, in soils. To test adsorption efficiency of bamboo char on nitrate anions of soils, two types of soils (natural and cultivated) and two sizes of bamboo char particles[1-2 mm with bamboo char percentages of 0(control, ck), 1%, 3%, and 5% and < 1 mm with percentages of 0 (ck), 1%, 2%, 3%, and 4%] were used. For comparison of the two particle sizes, the 3% bamboo char treatment was utilized. A potassium nitrate solution (KNO3) was mixed in the soil and then leached with ion-free water. After, the NO3- concentration was determined with ion chromatography. Results showed no significant increase in absorption capacity efficiency (P>0.05) for soils with more than 3% bamboo char. For the first two leachings, when soils treated with equivalent amounts of bamboo charcoal (3%) were compared to ck, the soil with the 1-2 mm size bamboo char had a significantly higher (P < 0.05) absorption capacity for nitrate anions than the < 1 mm and ck. During the third leaching, significant differences (P < 0.05) were observed between ck and soils with bamboo char(both < 1 mm and 1-2 mm size). Thus, absorption efficiency of anions was related to both proportion and particle diameter of bamboo charcoal with 3% bamboo char at 1-2 mm diameter being the most economical rate to reduce soil nitrate leaching.
Phytoliths, the opals of amorphous silica, are deposited in the cell wall, cell lumen, and intercellular spaces during the growth of plants, especially gramineous plants. To provide references for regulation of phytolith carbon sinks, the phytolith distribution in Phyllostachys edulis bamboo from Qingshan, Chuanba, Qiaoying, and Dashiju in Zhejiang Province, with different ages on the same lithology and with the same age on different lithologies (granite, granodiorite, basalt, and shale) was studied by sampling surface soils (500.0 g for each sample)and bamboo leaves (150.0 g for each sample) with three replicates and using the phytolith extraction method of microwave and Walkley-Black digestion. Results showed that the range of phytolith content in Phyllostachys edulis was 50.8-99.1 g·kg-1 and decreased from top to bottom of the leaf; it also decreased in the order:granite> granodiorite> basalt> shale. The phytolith production flux in Ph. edulis for different lithologies was 154.9-605.9 kg·hm-2·a-1 and decreased in the following order:granite> granodiorite> basalt> shale. Assuming a phytolith production flux in Ph. edulis of 209.5-420.2 kg·hm-2·a-1, the potential phytolith production rate in China was estimated to be 0.7-1.4 Tg·a-1. Thus, using the current distribution area of Ph. edulis in China (3.3×106 hm2) and the PhytOC content in phytoliths (3±1)%, (76.1-152.5)×106 kg·a-1 CO2 could be sequestered from phytoliths.
Soil organic carbon is a vital soil component that affects the physical, chemical and biological properties of soils. The soil organic carbon pool is mainly composed of two components, that is, the inert or recalcitrant component and the labile or active fraction. Black carbon (BC), the main form of the inert or recalcitrant component of soil organic carbon pool. Maintenance of their contents in the soil has been the important measure for improving productivity and stabilizing ecosystems. In this paper, the impact of fertilization on organic carbon and black carbon was studied in subtropical China by sampling in field. Soils were collected from sites where a long-term fertility experiment had been carried out for over 30 years in Jinxian County, Jiangxi Province. A fully randomized plot design was used in the experiment with eight treatments. They were designed and laid out:(Tr1) no fertilizer (ck); (Tr2) N fertilizer alone (N); (Tr3) K fertilizer alone (K); (Tr4) NK; (Tr5) NPK; (Tr6) 2(NPK) (twice treatment); (Tr7) organic manure (OM); and (Tr8) NPK+OM. Each treatment was carried out in three plots. Except for the 2NPK and ck treatments, the same amounts of NPK chemical fertilizer were applied in each treatment:N, 90 kg urea-N·hm-2·a-1; P, 45 kg triple superphosphate-P·hm-2·a-1; K, 75 kg potassium chloride-K·hm-2·a-1; or pig manure at 22 500·kg·hm-2·a-1.The results showed that organic carbon of Tr8 was significantly greater (P=0.05) in the 0-20 cm topsoil of both upland and paddy soils than Tr1, Tr2, Tr3, Tr4, Tr5, Tr6, and Tr7. Black carbon ranged from 2.72 to 5.33 g·kg-1 in upland soil and from 9.01 to 10.60 g·kg-1 in paddy soil. In the upland soil Tr3 and Tr7 as well as Tr2 and Tr5 were not significantly different (P=0.05); whereas in paddy soil no treatments were significantly different (P=0.05). A significant correlation (P=0.05, r=0.72) in upland soil existed for organic carbon and black carbon, but in not paddy soil. Thus, co-application of organic and inorganic fertilizer was best for organic carbon in upland and paddy soils, and accumulation of organic carbon and black carbon was more favorable in paddy soil than upland soil.
The study provides a new method for estimating leaf area index (LAI) and canopy closure (CC) of a Phyllostachys edulis stand. Through on ground investigation, spatial distribution of leaf area index and canopy closure were estimated using Cokriging and compared to Kriging. On that basis the spatial distribution pattern maps of canopy parameters for Phyllostachys edulis stand of Anji County, Zhejiang Province were mapped. Results showed that:(1) Geostatistical analysis showed a spherical model with the spatial variation of LAI and CC both having strong spatial autocorrelation features. (2) Cokriging improved the prediction accuracies with the coefficient of determination (R2) between predicted and measured values for LAI (0.635 1) and for CC (0.428 5). Also with Cokriging for LAI a decrease in the root mean square error (RMSE) (2.00%) and the average standard error (ASE) (0.18%) was found; whereas, for CC a decrease in RMSE (1.90%) and ASE (1.30%) was measured. Additionally with Cokriging, prediction accuracy values increased for LAI (1.94%) and for CC (4.82%). (3) The spatial distribution pattern maps of canopy parameters for the Phyllostachys edulis stand from Anji County, Zhejiang Province showed a gradual decrease in canopy coverage from southwest to northeast. Thus, Cokriging improved prediction accuracies of LAI and CC compared to Kriging, and canopy coverage reflected differences in Ph. edulis forest management for different regions of Anji County.
Chlorophyll is the main pigment of plant photosynthesis, and chlorophyll content is used as an important indicator to evaluate photosynthetic efficiency, mutation, environmental stress and nutritional status for plants. To determine the best way to measure chlorophyll content easily, quickly and accurately, nine species of broadleaf trees were sampled and measured. The nine species of broadleaf trees were Cyclobalanopsis glauca, Castanopsis sclerophylla, Cinnamomum camphora, Magnolia grandiflora, Koelreuteria integrifoliola, Magnolia heptapeta, Sapindus mukorossi, Liriodendron chinensis and Prunus serrulata. The purpose of this paper was to explore the relationship between chlorophyll content index (CCI) and absolute chlorophyll content, so that just by CCI to obtain the absolute chlorophyll content in leaves. The absolute chlorophyll content meant the quality of chlorophyll in leaves which was obtained by solution extraction method. The Chlorophyll Meter CCM-200 was used to determine the chlorophyll content index (CCI) of leaves. And then CCI and leaf thickness were used to simulate models of chlorophyll content. Comparison of simulated and measured data were extracted to show the error from 1) linear models which were only based on chlorophyll content index (CCI) to estimate chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, and total chlorophyll; 2) models with CCI and specific leaf weight (SLW); 3) models with CCI and specific leaf area (SLA), using a regression analysis. A regression analysis showed models only using CCI had an R2=0.610. With CCI and SLW, R2 improved, but R2 was better still with SLA and CCI, R2 between CCI and the content of chlorophyll a (R2=0.869), chlorophyll b (R2=0.893), and total chlorophyll (R2=0.881). Overall, the simulated model with CCI and SLA as variables was more accurate and universal for estimating chlorophyll content of selected broadleaf tree species.
Recently, Alternanthera philoxeroides, an invasive species, is found to distributed widly in eastern Tiaoxi River which is as an important source of drinking water in Hangzhou City. The widely distribution of A. philoxeroides will be result in the water ecological security. So it has an important significance to study the distribution of A. philoxeroides community in eastern Tiaoxi River, as well as to find the effect on local species' diversity. In this study, random sampling method was used. One 100 m2 sample plot at eight reaches of the eastern Tiaoxi River was designed, in which five 0.25 m2 quadrats were chose to as be sampling sites. The morphological characteristics and the associated communities of A. philoxeroides at eight reaches of the eastern Tiaoxi River, Zhejiang Province were studied, and the importance and influence on plant diversity at eight sites were analyzed using Simpson's diversity, Shannon-Wiener, and Pielou Evenness Indexes. Results showed that stem length varied from 41.85 to 62.83 cm, average distance between nodes varied from 4.00 to 6.28 cm, and average number of branches ranged from 6.35 to 82.00. At the Donghu Village site of Lin'an City, the highest important value was 56.09% with the least number (two) of associated species. However, there was no significant relevance between the importance value of A. philoxeroides and the species number of associated species (P>0.05). Nevertheless, there were significantly correlations between the associated species number and three diversity indexes (Simpson's diversity, Shannon-Wiener indexes, and Pielou Evenness Index)(P < 0.05). Our results indicate A. philoxeroides has affected the local plant species diversity of the eastern Tiaoxi River. And the water ecological security of east Tiaoxi River is being threated by invasive species A. philoxeroides.
Structure is one of the most important characteristics of a forest community, and population is its basic unit. The study on the age structure and the spatial distribution has important meanings to the research of population dynamics and community succession. This study was designed to help clarify vegetative ecological characteristics and change rules as well as to provide reference for establishing plans to protect the forest and the biodiversity in this area. Using quadrate investigation, the forest community in the West Lake Scenic of Hangzhou was divided into eight forest types including Pinus massoniana(A), P. massoniana-Castanopsis sclerophylla(B), Celtis sinensis-C. julianae(C), Cinnamomum camphora-Quercus acutissima(D), Schima superba-C. sclerophylla(E), Cyclobalanopsis glauca(F), Phyllostachys edulis(G) and Ph. edulis-Q. aliena(H), and analyzed by group average clustering to confirm dominant populations. The size stuctrue and survival curves of the dominant populations were studied with a spatial sere substituted for a temporal sere. Also, the spatial distibution pattern of the main dominant populations was determined using a Poisson distrbution, a negative binomial parameter, and a mean crowing index. The results of the size structure and survival curves showed that B, E and F were growing populations, A was a declining pupulation, C was a transitional type going from stable to declining, and D which was not stable could transform into a pure Cinnamomum camphora forest. The spatial distribution patterns showed that A, B, D, and H were random distributions; C, E, F, and G were clumped distributions. Forest vegetation was in successional change with the declining coniferous forest and deciduous broad-leaf forest developing into an evergreen broad-leaf forest and the evergreen broad-leaf forest transforming into a climax forest. Group average clustering was relatively simple and effective for confirming dominant populations. This study could help analyze the present situation and successional trends of the forest community in the West Lake Scenic of Hangzhouto protect biodiversity.
The species, distribution and phenological leaf color for fall-color, roadside trees along arterial roads in municipal districts of Hangzhou were analyzed. We chose several roads which were planted fall-color roadside trees to record ornamental characteristics, growth status, application form, road name, the planting area and landscape effect etc. Results showed that more than 30 000 fall-color, roadside trees found mostly to belong to 11 species:Platanus acerifolia, Liquidambar formosana, Metasequoia glyptostroboides, Sapium sebiferum, Ginkgo biloba, Sapindus mukorossi, Celtis julianae, Zelkova serrata, Taxodium ascendens, Celtis sinensis and Liriodendron chinensis. Except for Liriodendron chinensis, others were adapted to climate conditions of Hangzhou and the city road environment, and provided a favorable autumn street landscape for the bright red or yellow leaf color. In autumn, Liriodendron chinensis behaved poorly, must be planted in a suitable environment along roads, and should be nurtured carefully. The main problems included little variety for main street landscapes in cities of the Yangtze River Delta; unreasonable proportions of fall-color, roadside trees; simple configuration modes; unsuitable distribution; and poor road conditions. To improve the situation, we can exeavate local fall-color trees should change the unreasonable proportions and distribution, especially trees with red leaves in autumn; Liquidambar formosana, Sapindus mukorossi, C. julianae, Z. serrata, and C. sinensis. increased; consider ecological habits of trees; and establish a suitable living environment for fall-color, roadside trees.
A major reason for gaps in forests is windthrow, which is a kind of natural disaster with high frequency, broad cope and much wastage making it very important to understand the theoretical and practical aspects of windthrow. In this study, a nonlinear dynamic model of windthrow was established using dynamics theory to improve the shortcomings of the related theoretical model. The windthrow mechanism for Picea sitchensis was studied from two aspects:stable winds and gusts. The judgment conditions of tree windthrow were obtained through strict mathematical deductions. Results showed that windthrow condition with stable winds and gusts was different, which are complementary each other. Also, the standard wind speed value was related to action wind load time for the interaction between stable winds and gusts. These research results could be applied to windthrow problems of other species and could provide guidance for subsequent theoretical research and engineering applications.
Based on a field investigation of Pinus massoniana ecological public welfare forests in the northwest of Zhejiang Province and using cluster analysis, diversity analysis and similarity analysis, the ecological benefits of P. massoniana forests and the community structure characteristics of efficient P. massoniana forests were fully analyzed. The results indicated that the P. massoniana forests in the northwest of Zhejiang Province could be classified into 7 types by cluster analysis. Among the P. massoniana forests, the mixed forest (Type Ⅶ) with the evergreen broadleaf trees as the dominant species had a larger diversity and higher eco-efficiency. Using evergreen broadleaf forest and the type Ⅶ forest as high quality and efficient public welfare forest criteria, types Ⅰ-Ⅵ could be sorted as low efficient type through similarity analysis. The P. massoniana forest succession was analyzed through species diversity analysis to provide scientific foundation for the improvement of ecological public welfare forests of P. massoniana.
According to system structure and construction goal, following the principles of scientificity, systematicness, uniqueness, compatibility, integrity and extensibility and using traditional classification methods, forestry ecological engineering can be divided into four main categories including pro-conservation engineering, eco-protecting engineering, eco-economical engineering and environment-improved engineering. These four types of engineering are subdivided into twenty-four sub-categories such as natural forest protection engineering. Forestry ecological engineering information is divided into three types, namely, basic type, designing type and managing type. On the basis of classification, every item is encoded. The code structure of items includes four parts:main category code, detailed category code, engineering code and extended code. Items codes adopt relevant codes in the existing standards. Otherwise, they will be classified and encoded by users themselves.
As a "propeller" to promote the transformation and upgrading of forestry industry, standardized forestry management is also an important measure to accelerate the transformation of scientific and technological achievements of forestry. This paper used the Binary Logistic modeling to analyze farmer households' willingness to participate into forestry standardization project management based on a survey of farmer households in Anji County and Linhai City, Zhejiang Province. The research findings indicated the major determinants of farmer households' willingness to participate into forestry standardization project management included their forestland fragmentation degree, possession of sufficient or insufficient funds, family members' training experience in the forestry production technology, existence of forest products cooperatives in their towns or townships, and their anticipation of the forestry standardization projects. And based on the research findings, the paper gave the following suggestions on improving farmer households' willingness to participate into forestry standardization project management. Forestry standardization publicity should be enhanced to improve farmer households' awareness of standardization management; support funds for forestry standardization project should be raised to increase farmer households' willingness to participate into the standardization management; technical trainings of forestry production should be strengthened to improve farmer households' enthusiasm to participate into standardization management; the construction of forest products cooperatives should be improved to increase the institutional safeguard for the services regarding forest products.
Technical and economic analysis methods, including dynamic analysis, Break-Even analysis and One-Way Sensitivity analysis, were adopted to study production costs, economic indexes including the cumulative net present value (VNPV), internal rate of return (RIRR) and the payback period of investment (TP), break-even point of designed output and price earnings ratio, and influence of sales income and production cost on net present value over a 30-year period of Camellia oleifera. The results indicated that for a 30-year period, the cumulative net present value (VNPV) was 43 800 yuan·hm-2, the internal rate of return (RIRR) was 12.05 per cent, the payback period of investment (TP) were 16.41 year, according to benchmark discount rate of 7 per cent and the average market price of 60 yuan·kg-1 from the year of 2010-2012. The development of elite cultivars of Camellia oleifera planting was unacceptable if the sales income reduced by 19.50 per cent or the production cost increased by 24.20 per cent. Judging from the current market and production situations, such probability was very small. In order to promote the development of Camellia oleifera industry, in addition to the existing forestry subsidy policies, the government should make financing policies to increase the access to the small-amount loans and delay the time of loans repay and use subsidy policy to accelerate the development and application of economic and suitable small agricultural machinery such as camellia fruit picking machine and mountain soil tillage machine, also encourage camellia oil-refinery to transform existing oil refining machines with advanced technology to improve the processing efficiency and benefits, and promote the development of camellia oil industry.
The mechanism that bamboo charcoal's electrical conductivity was generated by the ion or π electron movement and related to the graphitization degree was analyzed in this paper. The impact of bamboo forest site conditions, different parts of bamboo timber, carbonization process, microstructure, particle size, and the basic physical and chemical performance indicators of bamboo charcoal on its charcoal conductivity were also analyzed. The progress of application research on bamboo charcoal and its composite's electromagnetic shielding effectiveness, and bamboo charcoal capacitor electrode was reviewed. Given the existing deficiencies of bamboo charcoal production techniques, bamboo charcoal conductive theory and application, the paper suggested the future trend of research and development in this field.
To determine the variation of aromatic constituents and their relative content in different flowering stages of Wisteria floribunda, constituents and their relative content of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were analyzed using the dynamic headspace air-circulation method and the thermal desorption system/gas chromatography/mass spectrum (TDS-GC-MS) technique at three flowering stages:bud stage, early opening stage, and full opening stage. Results showed that 34 VOCs including terpenes, esters, alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, phenols, aromatic and naphthenic compounds were detected in flowers of W. floribunda. The relative content of VOCs was low at the bud stage (229.68 peak area units), gradually increased at the early opening stage (378.16 peak area units), and peaked at the full opening stage (605.57 peak area units). Among these components, terpenes were the most plentiful (10-12 compounds) and had the highest relative content at each stage (in relative peak area):bud stage——69.0%, early opening stage——50.0%, and full opening stage——59.0%. The major aroma components of W. floribunda were as follows:ocimene, (Z)-3-Hexen-1-ol, acetate, limonene, and α-pinene.
To analyze the chemical components of volatile oil from the leaves of Pseudolarix amabilis, volatile oil from the leaves was extracted by steam distillation and the components were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) using peak area normalization methods. Results revealed 49 compounds which accounted for 93.35% of the chemical composition of the essential oil. The main compounds were (+)-α-pinene (31.72%), caryophyllene(18.57%), β-selinene(6.16%), α-muurolene(5.71%), β-elemene(5.64%), α-guaiene (5.28%), and β-eudesmol (3.36%) which accounted for 82.92% of the total peak area. This study could help provide a scientific basis for further research and development of P. amabilis.
The purpose is to provide theoretical basis for developing a new type of natural antiseptic products. The antimicrobial activity of Carya illinoensis leaves was determined through extraction, in vitro, with 75% ethanol and then fractionated with petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate, n-butanol, and water in turn. The cup plate method was used to determine antimicrobial activity of the extract and extractants with cultures of Aspergillus flavus, Rhizopus oryzae, Penicillium sp., Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Escherichia coli, and Bacillus subtilis. Then, the half inhibitory concentration (CE50) were calculated. Results showed that the mean inhibition zone diameter for the ethyl acetate extract of Penicillium sp. was 9.18 mm, of R. oryzae was 10.86 mm, of A. flavus was 8.26 mm, and of B. subtilis was 10.18 mm exhibiting a strong inhibitory effect(P < 0.05, P < 0.01). However, for A. flavus, the inhibitory effect of the petroleum ether extract (CE50 0.91 g·L-1) was better than the ethyl acetate extract (CE50>200 g·L-1). The mean inhibition zone diameter for the n-butanol extract of S. cerevisiae (11.13 mm) and E. coli (8.83 mm) also showed a strong inhibitory effect(P < 0.05, P < 0.01); nevertheless, the inhibitory effect of the aqueous extract(9.13 mm) for E. coli was better than the n-butanol extract(8.83 mm). Thus, the n-butanol extract and the ethyl acetate extract of Carya illinoensis leaves have the best inhibitory effect. For the experimental results, according to different control object, we can use different extraction methods and technology to research and develop the exclusive antiseptic, in order to improve the effect of antiseptic.