2016 Vol. 33, No. 5

Reference gene selection for quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) normalization in the gene expression of sweet osmanthus tissues
FU Jianxin, ZHANG Chao, WANG Yiguang, ZHAO Hongbo
2016, 33(5): 727-733. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2016.05.001
[Abstract](2460) [HTML] (427) [PDF](587)
To select the suitable reference gene(s) for gene expression analysis in different tissues of Osmanthus fragrans, five tissues: buds, fully-opened inflorescences, young leaves, adult leaves, and one-year-old stems, from O. fragrans 'Yanhong Gui' were used as materials to detect the expression levels of seven candidate reference genes by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Then, an aggregated analysis of gene expression stability for these candidates was conducted using three software programs: geNorm, NormFinder, and BestKeeper. Finally, the relative expression level of OfCRTISO1 in different tissues was analyzed to verify the reference genes selected in this study. Results of the aggregated analysis showed that OfRAN1 and OfUBC2 were the best reference genes from the different tissues, and Of18S was the worst reference gene. In addition, analysis of the relative expression level for OfCRTISO1 confirmed that OfRAN1 and OfUBC2 were the two most stable reference genes in the qRT-PCR analysis of the tissues, and the application of OfRAN1 and OfUBC2 was enough to achieve more accurate and reliable results in these tissues. Thus, the present study has provided an important reference for analyzing the expression of key genes in different tissues of O. fragrans.[Ch, 4 fig. 4 tab. 34 ref.]
Identification and expression analysis of tomato plasma membrane H+-ATPase family genes
LIU Jianjian, LIU Junli, JI Minjie, CHEN Jiadong, YANG Xiaofeng, CHEN Aiqun
2016, 33(5): 734-741. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2016.05.002
[Abstract](2386) [HTML] (473) [PDF](433)
Plasma membrane (PM) H+-ATPase, which catalyzes ATP hydrolysis coupled with pumping out protons from cells and which is ubiquitously existent in all cell types of plants examined so far, has been characterized to be encoded by a multigene family involved in a number of plant physiological and developmental processes. The aim of this study is to identify and characterize the genes encoding PM H+-ATPase in Solanum lycopersicum (tomato). Through genomic sequence database hunting and bioinformatics analysis, eight putative PM H+-ATPase genes (named as LHA1-8) were identified, and their expression patterns were subsequently analysed by quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Bioinformatics analysis revealed a high conservation among these paralogous genes in both coding sequences and Exon/Intron structures. Expression analysis showed that LHA1, LHA2, LHA3, and LHA4 were expressed in all tissues examined; whereas LHA5, LHA6, and LHA7 were predominantly expressed in flowers. LHA8, the newly identified gene in this study, with barely detectable transcripts in normal growth conditions or in nutrient (N, P, K, and Mg) -deficient conditions, was strongly induced in arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungal-colonized roots. A 2 669 bp LHA8 promoter fragment could direct the β-glucuronidase (GUS) reporter expression specifically in transgenic tobacco roots colonized by AM fungi. The results provide new insights into the evolutionary conservation and functional divergence of the tomato PM H+-ATPase gene family during plant growth and development.[Ch, 5 fig. 2 tab. 22 ref.]
Growth and ion transport with Pb stress in Robinia pseudoacacia seedlings
ZHOU Jian, JIANG Zeping, WEI Yuan
2016, 33(5): 742-748. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2016.05.003
[Abstract](2160) [HTML] (471) [PDF](357)
To explore Robinia pseudoacacia (Black Locust) tolerance and mechanism to lead(Pb) stress, R. pseudoacacia seedlings were first watered with solutions of Pb(NO3)2 dissolved in distilled water. Then, properties of growth, lead concentration(μg·g-1), and ion transfer in stressed seedlings were analyzed using multivariate linear regression analysis, Ducan multiple comparison and single factor test design with treatments of 250, 500, 1 000 and 1 500 mg·L-1 and 3 replications. Experimental results showed that 250 mg·L-1 of Pb(NO3)2 solution slightly promoted height, stem diameter, and seedling dry and fresh weights, but these decreased when lead concentration was subsequently increased. Lead content significantly increased (P < 0.05) with accumulation found in roots; seedling stems showed a lead increase(P < 0.05) and a subsequent decrease (P < 0.05). In stressed seedlings leaf concentration declined in these treatments of 250 to 1 500 mg·L-1. In addition, the lead ion transfer-ratio for stem to leaf significantly declined (P < 0.05). However, as lead concentration increased, the root to stem and root to both stem and leaf concentration increased (P < 0.05) and then decreased (P < 0.05). The multivariate linear regression analysis, showed that the most important factors affecting accumulation of dry biomass were 1) lead concentration in roots and 2) ion transfer ratio of root to both stem and leaf. Also in stressed seedlings lead concentration in stems and ion transfer ratio of root to stem the most significantly affected (P < 0.05) growth of height and of stem diameter. It was drawn that lead accumulation in root and inhibition of its transfer could prevent leaves from damage deriving from lead stress, and they would be the tolerance mechanism to lead stress for Robinia pseudoacacia seedlings.[Ch, 3 fig. 2 tab. 23 ref.]
Polysaccharides, extracts, and amino acids in hybrid Dendrobium officinale flowers
LÜ Suhua, XU Meng, ZHANG Xinfeng, LIU Jingjing, SI Jinping
2016, 33(5): 749-755. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2016.05.004
[Abstract](2609) [HTML] (468) [PDF](470)
Dendrobium officinale flowers, which have many non-medicinal folk applications, were studied to determine the distribution and correlation of substances. Using pharmacopeia methods 1) the polysaccharide content, 2) the extracts, and 3) the amino acid content were determined by acid hydrolysis and phenyl iso-thiocyanate (PITC) pre-column derivatization combined with a Reversed-phase-high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) assay. SPSS 17.0 was used for the analysis. Results showed D. officinale flowers had an average of 71.00 mg·g-1 polysaccharides and 300 mg·g-1 extracts; 16 kinds of amino acids having 7.9% of total amino acids were found. The SPSS 17.0 analysis for the relationship of the three ingredients revealed a negative correlation for the synthetic accumulation between polysaccharide and extracts, but no significant correlation with amino acids. In all, D. officinale flowers had nutritional and functional components including polysaccharides, extracts, and amino acids offering potential health benefits.[Ch, 1 fig. 3 tab. 11 ref.]
Floral biology of Mniochloa abersend
ZANG Qiaolu, LIN Xinchun
2016, 33(5): 756-761. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2016.05.005
[Abstract](2330) [HTML] (478) [PDF](425)
There is few research on the flowering phenomena of herbaceous bamboo. To fully understand the characteristics of bamboo flowering, the herbaceous bamboo Mniochloa abersend which was native to Brazil and introduced to Lin'an, Zhejiang was studied. The research examined the morphological characteristics and adaptability of Mniochloa abersend, and observed the selected plants at the stated hours to study their flowering biological characteristics including flowering omens, blooming sequence of florets, flowering period and duration, inflorescence structure as well as seed setting. The results demonstrated that M. abersend was perennial and tufted herbaceous bamboo, which grew not so well under 0 ℃ environment. Deform leaves would appear before flowering. Besides, M. abersend had long florescence, good seed production and spike-shaped raceme, belonging to the genuine inflorescence, whose basic units were twin spikes. In conclusion, M. abersend blossomed and set seeds annually, which could be a reference for crossing breeding and other research on bamboos.[Ch, 2 fig. 22 ref.]
Floristic analysis of coastal wetland plants in Taizhou Bay, Zhejiang, China
GUO Liang, ZHENG Ruolan, WU Caihua, HU Guang, HU Shaoqing
2016, 33(5): 762-767. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2016.05.006
[Abstract](2841) [HTML] (533) [PDF](444)
In the past 200 years, nearly 20 000 hm2 of coastal wetlands have been formed by enclosing coastal tidal flats in Taizhou Bay. To estimate local biodiversity of the coastal wetland plant communities with different histories after reclamation, a survey of plant species composition from the coast toward the city center was conducted. All the species recorded in this survey were classified by their geographical distribution. Then comparative analysis between the flora from Taizhou Bay and from the whole Zhejiang Province was used. Results indicated that flora from vascular plant communities in the study site were influenced by the reclamation history and soil conditions. Plant richness was high with 380 species, 254 genera, and 88 families. Herbs were the dominate group comprising 66.6% of all plant species. Few endemic species were found, and genera with only one species or a few species were abundant creating high ecological vulnerability in the region. The geographical elements of the flora were complex. Tropic and temperate components were co-dominant in the flora, which reflected a transitional characteristic from the Subtropical Zone to the North Temperate Zone. Salty plants were plentiful with 23 species. With 83 invasive species, this region was also suffering from a biological invasion that was increasing with reclamation time. This founding helps to understanding the biodiversity in the coastal wetland, and provides basic background for local biodiversity conservation.
Community structure for main forests in Mount Putuo, Zhejiang Province
HU Junfei, XU Mingshan, TIAN Wenbin, ZHOU Weiping, SHI Qingru, ZHOU Liuli, ZHAO Yantao, ZHU Danni, CHENG Junyang, SONG Yanjun, YAN Enrong
2016, 33(5): 768-777. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2016.05.007
[Abstract](2757) [HTML] (635) [PDF](337)
Community structure is a theoretically and practically important plant community research field in areas of forest development, vegetative restoration and protection, community structure optimization, and special scenic spot development. In this study, forest types of Liquidambar formosana, Camellia longicaudata, Podocarpus macrophyllus, Cyclobalanopsis glauca, young Cyclobalanopsis glauca, Loropetalum chinensis, Distylium gracile, and Cinnamomum camphora were selected to analyze their structural characteristics in subtropical forests of Zhoushan Island, Zhejiang Province. Analysis included Pielou and Shannon-Wiener indices and power-fitted curves for DBH and tree crown. Results showed that stand structure and forest appearance were relatively complete indicating that forest types were dominant species and stand structure was relatively stable. With respect to diameter-class distribution, “L” type forests were Liquidambar formosana, Camellia longicaudata, Cyclobalanopsis glauca, D. gracile, and Cinnamomum camphora; whereas, unimodal type forests were Loropetalum chinensis and young Cyclobalanopsis glauca, with P. macrophyllus forest as a “U” type for diameter-class distribution. With respect to biodiversity indices, the P. macrophyllus forest had the highest species richness; the young Cyclobalanopsis glauca forest had the lowest species richness, Pielou and Shannon-Wiener indices but highest average stem density; the D. gracile forest had the lowest average stem density; and the Cinnamomum camphora forest showed the lowest Shannon-Wiener and Pielou indices. Nutrition investment in the vertical direction, was highest for the Liquidambar formosana forest and lowest in the Camellia longicaudata forest(P<0.05). Horizontal nutrition investment was highest in the P. macrophyllus forest and lowest in the Cyclobalanopsis glauca forest(P<0.05). In the Cyclobalanopsis glauca and the Cyclobalanopsis glauca young forest, vertical nutrition investment was greater than horizontal nutrition investment(P<0.05); the D. gracile forest was reversed(P<0.05). In addition, power curves of tree height fit for each DBH (R2 = 0.71, P<0.01) and crown area (R2 = 0.51, P<0.01) were highly significant. Thus, stand structure in the study area was stable, diameter-class distribution was reasonable, species diversity was high, and wind resistance was strong, but some discrepancies existed meaning more efforts to optimize community structure, increase species diversity, and improve plant adaptation to island habitats were needed.
Diversity and geographical distribution of Pteridophytes in Wenzhou
LIU Yixi, ZHANG Hao, ZHU Shengchao
2016, 33(5): 778-783. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2016.05.008
[Abstract](2925) [HTML] (591) [PDF](342)
Based on the review of literature and samples, and collection and identification of samples, this paper analyzed 277 species (belonging to 93 genera, 44 families) of the Pteridophyte flora in Wenzhou, Zhejiang Province. There are rich species of Pteridophyte flora in Wenzhou. The dominant families are Dryopteridaceae (5 genera and 50 species), Thelypteridaceae (10 genera and 36 species), Athyriaceae (9 genera and 31 species), Polypodiaceae (10 genera and 30 species) and Aspleniaceae (1 genera and 15 species). The dominant genera are DryoPteris(26 species), Asplenium(15 species), Pteris(14 species), Selaginella (13 species) and Arachniodes (11 species). The flora origin traces back to the ancient time, including quite a few ancient families, genera and relic species. The flora elements are complicated and contain various geographical features, the tropical and subtropical features being comparatively distinctive.
Landscape features of urban forest greenbelts in the Pearl River Delta
TANG Honghui, ZHAO Qing, YAN Jun, YANG Qing
2016, 33(5): 784-789. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2016.05.009
[Abstract](2724) [HTML] (423) [PDF](390)
Greenbelts are an important part of the urban green space system. To understand the features of urban forest greenbelts, with the help of the GPS, a 400 m2 standard sample was set along the greenbelt every 5 km. There were 302 greenbelt sample plots in the Pearl River Delta (PRD) were tested and analyzed by vegetative spatial structure (tree-shrub-grass), canopy density, canopy coverage, and plant configuration according to three types (urban, suburban, and ecological). Results showed that the proportion of tree-shrub-grass structure was the greatest with the proportion of the three types of greenbelts being urban (79.8%) > suburban (60.7%) > ecological (45.7%). The canopy density of the urban greenbelt was the greatest with relative canopy densities being urban (0.066) > suburban (0.040) > ecological (0.026). Coverage of the three types of greenbelts were almost same with their relative coverage being ecological (0.068) > urban (0.067) > suburban (0.060). The linear planting (65.6%) was the most common planting scheme for trees. The linear planting (52.0%) and group planting (31.5%) was the most common planting scheme for shrubs. The single species of ground cover (64.6%) was the most common planting scheme for grasses.
Compatible tree volume and aboveground biomass equations for Pinus massoniana from different regions
LÜ Changxiao, DENG Huafeng, WANG Shaojie, CHEN Zhenxiong, WANG Xuejun
2016, 33(5): 790-797. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2016.05.010
[Abstract](2390) [HTML] (423) [PDF](340)
To develop models of compatible tree volume and aboveground biomass equations, which for Pinus massoniana have been reported in the literature, while constructing models from different regions rarely. So in this paper, from different regions, sample data of P. massoniana from Chongqing Municipality as well as from Sichuan and Hubei Provinces were used to construct compatible tree volume equations, aboveground biomass equations, and biomass conversion factor functions using nonlinear simultaneous equations and the dummy variable model. Results showed that two-variable models were better than one-variable models for both tree volume and aboveground biomass equations. Also, by introducing a tree volume factor, accuracy and model precision for the above-ground biomass equation improved greatly, which means the accuracy of compatible tree volume and aboveground biomass equations was over 95%, the total relative errors (TRE) were within 2%, and the mean prediction errors (MPE) were within 5%. Although models for these regions differed, both one-variable and two-variable compatible models were feasible for estimating the aboveground biomass and the tree volume of P. massoniana in Chongqing Municipality and in Sichuan and Hubei Provinces.
Remote sensing dynamic monitoring and driving force analysis of county-cities expansion
LI Xianping, FENG Zhongke, YOU Xianxiang, QU Shuai
2016, 33(5): 798-806. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2016.05.011
[Abstract](2677) [HTML] (437) [PDF](546)
Song County of Luoyang City in Henan Province was selected as the research object to efficiently study primary stage of urban expansion characteristics and rational utilization of land resources. Remote sensing monitoring capability and the powerful analysis function of GIS were applied to study the changes of the urban expansion in the county and the influence of the main land types in the urban expansion was analyzed quantitatively. The study showed that the expansion speed of the north county was faster than the southern in 1987-2013. The expansion of Song County was greatly influenced by the terrain, with a 266.0% increase rate of construction land and 14.3% forestland, 28.9% decrease of cultivated land and generally slight changes of waters and beaches, and a rapid reduction tendency of unused land. The main forms included the conversion of cultivated land and forest land, the conversion of grassland and woodland, the transformation of land from waters, and the conversion of unused land to cultivated land. Among them, the largest proportion of conversion was the unused land and grassland, being respectively 88.5% and 87.6%. The driving force analysis showed that economic development consumption level of residents and population change have a strong explanatory effect on the main land use change.
Net carbon sinks in the initial stages of moso bamboo stands
YU Shuhong, ZHOU Guomo, SHI Yongjun, LÜ Yulong, SHEN Zhenming
2016, 33(5): 807-815. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2016.05.012
[Abstract](2425) [HTML] (440) [PDF](457)
Due to climate change problems, afforestation activities with bamboo, a widely distributed forest-type resource in tropical and subtropical regions, to accumulate carbon sinks and to foster carbon sink trade have been increasing because of bamboo's strong carbon sequestration capability. This study followed the entire carbon process in bamboo stands to monitor the annual storage change of moso bamboo (Phyllostachys edulis) carbon and soil organic carbon (SOC) by establishing 36 plots with 20m × 20m size, and then explored the accumulation and change characteristics of net carbon sequestration by considering baseline carbon storage and emission leakage estimates with afforestation activities. Results showed that 1) in the initial stage (1-5 years) for moso bamboo carbon sink stands, the net carbon sink was 443.77 t CO2-equivalent (e), and the cumulative net carbon sink was 9.30 t CO2-e per hectare. 2) Only moso Bamboo carbon sink change had a positive impact on the project's net carbon sink; whereas, five year accumulation changes in t CO2-e for SOC (-292.90), fertilization emission (-18.99), and transportation leakage (-8.27) revealed adverse effects. 3) However, the rate-of-change for bamboo carbon (aboveground and underground) was not uniform. 4) Also, soil disturbance during moso bamboo afforestation had a strong negative influence on the net carbon sink, even causing net emissions (-116.31) in the early stages of afforestation.
Object-based forest type classification with ZY-3 remote sensing data
DONG Xinyu, FAN Wenyi, TIAN Tian
2016, 33(5): 816-825. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2016.05.013
[Abstract](2521) [HTML] (435) [PDF](770)
A new method of identification technology for forest types, an important and difficult part of remote sensing classification, uses object-oriented remote sensing image classification.It provides a new direction for forest type to extract which is based on ZY-3 remote sensing data. This study applied ZY-3 remote sensing data to the object-oriented classification method, chose hierarchical segmentation of a fractal network as an evolution method, and combined typical ground objects including spectrum features, texture features, geometrical characteristics, and vegetation indexes, to build a decision tree model which is applicable to forest types. Then, the different segmentation scale compared from the support vector machine (SVM) classification method. Results showed that classification accuracy of the decision tree classification method with multi-level segmentation (which increased 6.1% and 12.5% ) was higher than the support vector machine (SVM) classification method with the different single segmentations. Thus, it would be suitable to build a decision tree classification with multi-level segmentation to the classification of forest type.
Visualization for a Phyllostachys edulis stands
ZHAO Saisai, TANG Mengping, TANG Sijia, ZHANG Jun, LI Lan, PANG Chunmei, ZHAO Mingshui
2016, 33(5): 826-833. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2016.05.014
[Abstract](2100) [HTML] (385) [PDF](371)
Moso bamboo (Phyllostachys edulis), a special type of forest with high economic value and ecological benefits, requires scientific management that will effectively protect the ecological environment as it promotes economic benefits. Therefore, to provide a new technology and methodology for improved scientific management of the moso bamboo stand, the 3D modeling function of BAMBOO OnyxTREE and 3ds Max software were combined with the 3D display function from ArcScene software in ArcGIS to realize a 3D visualization of the bamboo stand. Next, a moso bamboo stand with a standard sample plot size of 100 m × 100 m was chosen in the National Nature Reserve of Mount Tianmu, Zhejiang Province. Total Station was used to measure the three dimensional coordinates of each moso bamboo, as well as diameter at breast height (DBH), bamboo height, branch height, and crown width. Based on survey data, 3D models of different growth state of bamboo were made by OnyxTREE BAMBOO and 3ds Max. These were then imported into ArcGIS and overlaid with DEM in ArcScene to make a visualization of the moso bamboo stand. Results showed a favorable visual effect. The observer could not only overlook the entire bamboo stand, but could also virtually go into the stand to see the specific growth state of moso bamboo, such as living or dead, standing or curving, and broken or lodging, as well as the rolling woodland surface. By clicking on a bamboo, relevant information was easily obtained including height, DBH, crown width, and branch height. In addition, real-time roaming within the bamboo stand was realized in ArcScene, and fixed path roaming could be realized by setting the roaming path. Additionally, roaming animation could be saved as a video format for output. From this study, a set of complete visualization techniques for the moso bamboo stand with favorable operability was obtained that could not only reflect the current growth situation of the stand, but could also display the stand status after cutting or natural disturbance, and provided a foundation for further study on the visualization of a moso bamboo stand's dynamic change.
Regional adaptability trials for Carpinus betulus in China
ZHU Zunling, SHI Man, ZHOU Qi, WU Yufan, YU Wanwen, ZHONG Xiulin, XU Huiqun
2016, 33(5): 834-840. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2016.05.015
[Abstract](2413) [HTML] (491) [PDF](389)
To research adaptability of Carpinus betulus in China, C. betulus and its two cultivars (C. betulus ‘Frans Fontaine’ and C. betulus ‘Lucas’) were used as experimental materials with the phenological period, growth condition, and morphological index being observed in Beijing, Nanjing, and Jingjiang. The Additive Main Effects and Multiplicative Interaction (AMMI) Model was adopted to evaluate adaptability through index of net hight and leaf area among C. betulus and its two cultivars in three regions. Results showed that the interaction between genotype and environment was strong to net hight(P=0.002 0) and leaf area(P=0.000 1). Take phenology, morphological parameters, survival rate and AMMI model analysis togethter, C. betulus ‘Frans Fontaine’ was the most stable and had the fastest growth followed by C. betulus and C. betulus ‘Lucas’; Nanjing was the most suitable region for growth of C. betulus and its two cultivars followed by Beijing and Jingjiang; for C. betulus ‘Frans Fontaine’ adaptability was better in Nanjing and Beijing, for C. betulus ‘Lucas' adaptability was better in Nanjing and Jingjiang, and for C. betulus adaptability was better in Nanjing. Therefor, C. betulus and its two cultivars can be introduced and cultured in Nanjing, C. betulus ‘Frans Fontaine’ can be introduced and cultured in Beijing, and C. betulus ‘Lucas’ can be introduced and cultured in Jingjiang.
Selection criteria for superior Toona ciliata trees in natural forests of Hubei
WANG Yang, MIN Shuifa, JIANG Xiongbo, ZHENG Deguo, SONG Congwen, ZHANG Dingqing, FU Qiusheng, CHEN Wenxue
2016, 33(5): 841-848. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2016.05.016
[Abstract](2485) [HTML] (515) [PDF](341)
In order to obtain and preserve fine germplasm resources of Toona ciliata in natural communities of Hubei Province, in 3 consecutive years from 2013, genetic resources of T. ciliata were determined in Hubei Province, on the basis of which, superior tree selections were made in 12 different administrative regions. Natural forest stands for superior tree selection were determined by establishing five age groups covering 16-40 a, each in 5 a. The 5-superior-tree-comparison method was employed to select superior trees on 5 age groups and the uneven tree ages of the selected target trees were adjusted. Two independent evaluation standards for timber volumn and shape quality value indexes were proposed to establish the selective criterion. Results of the initial selection were 52 preliminary superior T. ciliata trees. The multiple linear regression for timber volume (y), DBH(x1) and tree height (x2) wasy=-3.066+0.065x2+0.094x2, R2=0.961, indicating a highly significant linear relation between y and x(x2, x2). Results showed that 52 preliminary superior trees could be classified into 3 grades of growth volume with residual analysis of measured values and theoretical values: 10 Class A superior trees, 38 Class B and 4 Class C, covering 19.23%, 73.08% and 7.69% of the total. Furthermore, the four screened out shape factors named ratio of crown height to tree height, average crown breadth, stem straightness and branching angle, with accumulative contribution rates 91.718%, approximately represented the general information of all 6 factors. Hence, all 52 priliminary superior trees were classified to three tree grading standards of shape quality values, with 30 Class A, 12 Class B and 10 Class C, occupying 57.69 %, 23.08% and 19.23% respectively of the total. In the end, the comprehensive evaluation standard of superior trees of T. ciliata for both growth volumn and shape quality value was utilized, with individuals of Class C eliminated from 2 grading groups, obtaining 40 superior trees in total, i.e. 7 of grade 1, 22 of grade 2, and 11 of grade 3 respectively, accounting for 76.92% of the 52 preliminaries. With these grading systems considered, fast growth and fine shape quality value of the selected superior trees can be guaranteed, and these selected superior trees approximate the demands for the establishment of genetic resource nurseries and provenance tests of T. ciliata in the Hubei region. The comprehensive selection standard of superior tree of T. ciliata can be practiced as a reference in the Hubei region.[Ch, 1 fig. 9 tab. 19 ref.]
Growth of Pelargonium zonale and Calendula officinalise when utilizing green waste compost as a peat substitute
WEI Le, LI Suyan, LI Yan, GONG Xiaoqiang, SUN Xiangyang
2016, 33(5): 849-854. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2016.05.017
[Abstract](2276) [HTML] (438) [PDF](426)
To examine the possibility of using green waste compost (GWC) as a growing substrate component for geranium (Pelargonium zonale) and calendula (Calendula officinalise), five growing substrates were prepared by mixing modified GWC and peat at the volume rates of 0% and 100% (control), 25% and 75%, 50% and 50%, 75% and 25%, and 100% and 0%. In the first experiment, geranium and calendula seeds were sowed in each substrate and seedlings were quantified after 35 days of cultivation. The experiment was conducted as completely random block design with 4 replicates. In the second experiment, geranium and calendula seedlings were grown in each medium and were quantified after six months of cultivation. The experiment was also conducted as completely random block design but with 20 replicates. At the end of the experiment, 9 plants in the same size were randomly selected from each treatment. Results showed that an increase of the GWC percentage in the growing substrate resulted in an increase (P < 0.05)in bulk density but an decreasing trend in total pore space, aeration porosity, and water-holding porosity. In addition, the increased ratio of GWC in the growing substrates induced an increase (P < 0.05)in pH and electrical conductivity values as well as the contents of macro-and micro-elements. In the first experiment, Geranium seedlings grown in the 100% peat compost-based substrate had lower quality than seedlings grown in the control medium(100% peat); even a low proportion of 25% GWC caused damage to the seedlings. Calendula seedlings grown in substrates containing 25%-50% GWC displayed equal quality to the control medium(100% peat). The second experiment showed that the addition of GWC in the growing substrate(P < 0.05)greatly increased the shoot dry weight, plant height, stem diameter, and leaf surface of geranium and calendula, as well as the root weight and number of flowers per plant of calendula. Thus, a green waste compost could partly replace peat in substrates as a seedling growth material for calendula, and it could also be used for geranium and calendula cultivation.[Ch, 5 tab. 15 ref.]
Hemolymph coagulation inhibitor screening for use on Apriona germari
JIN Feng, JI Baozhong, TANG Jingen
2016, 33(5): 855-861. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2016.05.018
[Abstract](2238) [HTML] (407) [PDF](392)
Adding suitable agglutination inhibitor has helpful for long-term preservation of hemolymph and for physiological and biochemical research of hemolymph. Hemolymph agglutination inhibition tests on adult Apriona germari were conducted using sodium citrate and seven other drugs. During dissolving of cold storage hemolymph, mixtures (by volume) of hemolymph, inhibitor and phenylthiourea were made and then placed at 4 ℃. Inhibition effects of every inhibitor mixture (citric acid-natrium, dihydrogen phosphate buffer, potassium oxalate, colchicine, Ringer solution, and a phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) buffer), were determined after being applied for 2 min and for 6 h. Through the naked eye observation and microscopic examination, the shape and quantity of sediment and the blood cells were intact to evaluate the effect of anticoagulation. Results showed that the inhibition effect of 1% sodium citrate in the mixture of hemolymph, sodium citrate, and phenylthiourea (1:2:2 by volume) was best. Using citric acid-natrium, dihydrogen phosphate buffer, potassium oxalate, colchicine, Ringer solution, and a phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) buffer as inhibitors, hemagglutination in these mixtures was also inhibited. Inhibition of Cefotaxime and Sulfate Neomycin were very small. After collection and being placed for 6 h, of all inhibitors the inhibition effect of 1% sodium citrate was best. A small amount of precipitate was found in mixtures of Ringer solution, PBS buffer, citric acid-natrium, and dihydrogen phosphate when used as inhibitors. Much precipitate and hemolymph coagulation were found in the other four inhibitors' mixtures. Therefore, by using sodium citrate as a hemolymph inhibitor for adult Apriona germari, hemagglutination could be effectively inhibited.[Ch, 7 tab. 14 ref.]
Antioxidant activity of raw polysaccharides from Heterolocha jinyinhuaphaga pupae in vitro
XIANG Yuyong, ZHANG Zhijian, YIN Peifeng, ZHANG Yuanchang
2016, 33(5): 862-868. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2016.05.019
[Abstract](1630) [HTML] (327) [PDF](298)
To understand the antioxidant activity of raw polysaccharides from the Heterolocha jinyinhuaphaga pupae, and provide scientific reference for development of natural antioxidant drugs and performance foods, raw polysaccharides from the pupae was extracted in the laboratory by the hot water extraction method. Then, its antioxidant activity was studied in vitro by spectrophotometric method. Its clearing rate on 2, 2-diphenyL-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), ·OH and O2-. was tested with 3 replications, and vitamin C was used as control. Results showed that with a dosage of 0.2 g·L-1, the clearing rate of raw polysaccharide was 39.3% on DPPH, 35.6% on ·OH, and 26.8% on O2-. With a 1.2 g·L-1 dosage, the clearing rate increased to 74.9% for DPPH, 61.6% for ·OH, and 47.8% for O2-. From 0.2 to 1.2 g·L-1, the clearing rate showed a linear connection to the dosages. Thus, the pupae polysaccharide of H. jinyinhuaphaga. had a high antioxidant activity, which could potentially be exploited.[Ch, 4 fig. 20 ref.
Behavior of overwintering, artificially reared greylag geese (Anser anser)
XU Zhenggang, DUAN Choucang, FENG Lei, PENG Jiao, WU Liang, ZHAO Yunlin
2016, 33(5): 869-874. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2016.05.020
[Abstract](1850) [HTML] (354) [PDF](367)
To further understand the behavioral rhythm of artificially reared greylag geese (Anser anser) during the overwintering period, the behavior sampling method was used to survey six behaviors: foraging, moving, observing, resting state, washing feathers, and communicating, of geese reared on the eastern side of Dongting Lake. In addition, during the survey process, 20 behaviors were described with the duration time for each behavior recorded and analyzed. 12 greylag geese were observed and the observation happened 8:00 to 16:00 every day in the experiment. Results showed that the longest duration time for each behavior differed with the longest duration time of rest being 20 min; whereas, communication behavior was only 16 s. The shortest duration time for each behavior was almost the same lasting from 3 to 10 s, but there were fluctuations for all behaviors. Greylag goose behavioral rhythm during overwintering indicated that feeding, being stationary, exercising, and cleaning were the major behaviors. The proportion of time for being stationary was more than the others with peaks always occurring in the morning and evening. Frequency of the foraging behavior was determined by feeding with two peaks in a day. During the foraging process, many behaviors were observed, such as the vigilance behavior. This research would be useful for rearing and succoring greylag geese that were overwintering.2 fig. 2 tab. 16 ref.]
Probe-wood contact and gauge pressure with Sylvatest-Duo for precision ultrasonic measurements of wood
GAO Shan, WANG Lihai, YANG Donghui, XU Wenhao
2016, 33(5): 875-880. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2016.05.021
[Abstract](2334) [HTML] (405) [PDF](411)
To improve precision testing for wood quality and defects when applying the Sylvatest-Duo ultrasound device, the effects of probe-wood contacts and gauge pressure on ultrasonic wave velocity and energy loss with wood were tested. The most optimal mode for probe-wood contact and gauge pressure was determined for wood ultrasonic measurements. A small clean wood sample (25.4 mm × 25.4 mm × 407.0 mm) of American red pine, Pinus resinosa was used as the research object. The effects of different probe-wood contacts and gauge pressures on wood testing performance were examined by employing single factor repeated tests. Multivariate Tests results from SPSS statistical analysis showed that the effect of differences in probe-wood contacts on ultrasonic measurements is significant(P=0.000). The experimental results using sustainable probe-wood contact was more stable-than the continuous probe-wood mode. With sustainable probe-wood contact, ultrasonic wave velocity and energy loss increased as gauge pressure increased, but stabilized at a gauge pressure of 40 psi (275.8 kPa) meaning it was the optimal gauge pressure. Therefore, 40 psi (275.8 kPa) gauge pressure for sustainable probe-wood contact should be used for optimal measurement precision when applying the Sylvatest-Duo device to conduct ultrasonic measurements on wood.
Catalytic degradation from a new catalytic cellulose to tetracycline
SHI Lili, TAN Xian, LI Xingjie, GUO Ming
2016, 33(5): 881-889. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2016.05.022
[Abstract](2354) [HTML] (455) [PDF](381)
Four amino phthalocyanine compounds: cobalt tetraamin-ophthalocyanine (CoTAPc) was prepared using the oxide method. Next, the cellulose derivatives carrier was synthesize by sulfonylation, and then a new catalytic function cellulose (F-CoTDTAPc), which the CoTAPc loaded on the cellulose derivatives carrier, was obtained with a chemical bind. Afterward, element analysis, infrared spectrum, and atomic absorption spectrum were used to characterize the structure of the intermediate and final products thereby confirming the expected product synthesis. Then, degradation performance of the new catalytic function for cellulose to tetracycline was determined, and the affection factor with different temperature, time, and concentrations of oxidant and tetracycline were explored. Finally, an orthogonal designed experiment was used to optimize the degradation process. Results showed that F-CoTDTAPc was successfully prepared, and in the presence of H2O2, it rapidly degraded tetracycline with better in situ regeneration. The optimal degradation process for F-CoTDTAPc to tetracycline was follows, the tempearture was set as 60 ℃, time as 5 h, the concentration of oxidant as 0.05 mol·L-1, the concentration of tetracycelne as 5×10-5 mol·L-1.
WQI for water quality evaluation in Qingshan Lake
GU Jianqiang, ZHANG Wen, ZHU Fan, CHEN Feng, SU Guangyun, QI Hengnian
2016, 33(5): 890-898. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2016.05.023
[Abstract](2235) [HTML] (338) [PDF](561)
Qingshan Lake used mainly for tourism, agricultural irrigation, and drinking water and other purposes and development of tourism, industry may make the existence of the risks contamination. So this study was conducted to help understand the lake's water quality by using a water quality assessment. Based on sampled water quality data from Qingshan Lake in Lin'an from 2009 to 2013, water quality was evaluated using the water quality index method with a Principal Component Analysis along with a coefficient of variation for standard multiple weight and average weight. The water pollution contribution of each into the reservoir was obtained by analyzing the causes of pollution. Results showed that the single factor chemical oxygen demand index and NH3-N in Qingshan Lake reached level Ⅱ, in accordance with function grade of Qingshan Lake. Single factor labeling indexes revealed that total phosphorus, total nitrogen, and chlorophyll-a were the main pollutant. The comprehensive water quality identification index method based on the principal component analysis and the average weight, confirmed these results. From 2009 to 2013 the lake's water quality reached level Ⅳ. The maximum WQI was 4.331 in 2009, and the minimum was 4.131 in 2013 with a U-shaped pattern. The pollution contribution from the Jinxi Stream was highest for TN and Chl-a. The South Tiaoxi Stream took the second place. The pollution contribution from Linxi Stream was highest for TP. These results will help provide a scientific basis for management and protection of Qingshan Lake.
Research progress of heavy metal phytoremediation technology of fast-growing forest trees in soil
ZHONG Bin, CHEN Junren, PENG Danli, LIU Chen, GUO Hua, WU Jiasen, YE Zhengqian, LIU Dan
2016, 33(5): 899-909. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2016.05.024
[Abstract](3785) [HTML] (661) [PDF](554)
Phytoremediation is a green and environmental technology used for heavy metal contaminated soil remediation which is commonly used in the world currently. However, the research materials are mainly concentrated on hyperaccumulating plants especially for the screening of remediation species, and less research focus on the fast-growing trees. Hyperaccumulators mainly concentrated in herbaceous plants and had strong ability of absorption and transport of heavy metals because of their ability, but due to the reason of smaller size, low biomass, slow growth rate and undeveloped root the application was limited. Compared with the hyperaccumulators, the fast-growing trees have the advantages of high biomass and rapid growth, etc. The application of fast-growing trees in phytoremediation provides a choice for remediation of heavy metal contaminated soil of large area. This paper reviews the characteristics of fast-growing trees used for heavy metal contaminated soil remediation. At the same times, the tolerance, absorption, transportation, accumulation, distribution, strengthening technology and recycling of fast-growing trees as a remediation materials are also discussed in this paper, which could provides a new research viewpoint in the future.
Purification effect of aquatic plants on nitrogen, phosphorus and heavy metal polluted water
LIU Shenshen, ZHANG Zhen, HE Jinling, MA Youhua, HU Hongxiang, ZHANG Chunge
2016, 33(5): 910-919. doi: 10.11833/j.issn.2095-0756.2016.05.025
[Abstract](4046) [HTML] (604) [PDF](612)
In order to control the excessive eutrophication which caused by concentration of nitrogen and phosphorus, and heavy metal pollution produced in industrial process, aquatic plants are widely used in water purification due to their remarkable removal effect, easy availability, good landscape effect and other advantages. Based on literature review and field investigation, this paper reviewed the common species of different life forms of aquatic plants, explained their mechanisms of reducing nitrogen, phosphorus, heavy metals and the differences of their performance. On the basis of review, we analyzed the existing problems in the research of the water purification effect of aquatic plants, and put forward the research prospect. This paper is of certain directive significance and theoretical value in terms of applying aquatic plants to the pollution control of agricultural non-point sources.