2014 Vol. 31, No. 2
To determine changes in chemical components as well as physical and mechanical properties of Phyllostachys edulis, heat treatments of 160,180,and 200℃ for 2,4,and 6 h were applied to bamboo and compared with untreated bamboo. The treatments were analyzed with a spectrogram from a Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Results showed that as the heat treatment temperatures and times increased, the Klason-lignin content of Ph. edulis bamboo increased;whereas holo-cellulose content,α-cellulose,modulus of rupture (MOR),and modulus of elasticity (MOE) decreased. The 200℃ and 6 h heat-treatment compared to untreated bamboo increased the Klason-lignin content 115.0 g·kg-1 but decreased the holo-cellulose content 93.1 g·kg-1 and α-cellulose 239.4 g·kg-1. Bending strength decreased 84.5 MPa and the MOE decreased 1.86 GPa. The spectrogram also illustrated that the number of hydroxyls on the surface of the modified bamboo decreased.
Silver grass (Miscanthus sacchariflorus),in the Poaceae family,is a tall,upright perennial grass with high biomass. To explore the feasibility of using adhesives to glue silver grass stalks and then utilizing them as a raw material for wood-based panels,dynamic wettability and surface free energy of silver grass stalks were determined. The adhesive contact angle on the silver grass stalks was measured to fit a model of dynamic wettability and compared using the diffuse-permeability coefficient K. The surface free energy of internal and external surfaces of the silver grass stalks was also measured by a Surface Tensiometer. Results showed that the dynamic wettability model exactly simulated the effect of contact angle on time. Also,the wettability order of adhesives on silver grass stalk was melamine-urea-formaldehyde (MUF) ＜urea-formaldehyde (UF) ＜phenol-formaldehyde (PF),and the mean free energy of the silver grass stalk was 47.49 mJ·m-2,which was close to that of wood and higher than wheat straw. Silver grass can be glued by these three kind of adhesives for wood-based panels making.
To analyze gross primary production(PGP) of Phyllostachys edulis from Shanchuan Village in Anji County,Zhejiang Province in 2011,the vegetation photosynthesis model (VPM) which was developed by integrating MODIS(Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer)and flux measurements was used. Results showed that PGPVPM(1 848.54 g·m-2)was consistent with results from Shanchuan carbon flux site(1 899.69 g·m-2) having a relative tolerance of 2.69%. Though total PGP was similar,some differences occurred especially in the growing season,PGPVPM were higher than PGPobs. The correlation of PGPVPM to PGPobs was 0.747 and the correlation coefficient was 0.864. Further,time-series data for the IEV have a stronger linear relationship with the PGP than those for the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index. Results of this study demonstrate that the satellite-driven VPM has been potential for estimating site-level or regional Phyllostachys edulis PGP.
To explore the practicality of using high resolution images from remote sensing to monitor the invasive species Mikania micrantha, WordView-2 images as data sources were employed along with object-oriented classification methods in Shenzhen City. Results using WordView-2 images showed that the optimal band combination for M. micrantha was 364 bands (near infrared band,coastal band,and red light) with an 83.3% mapping accuracy, a user accuracy of 81.1%,and an overall accuracy of 87.5%. Precise classification of other object types was above 80%. Although subjectivity was a strong disadvantage,monitoring with remote sensing,based on the object-oriented methodology of a WordView-2 video,was advantageous for extraction and application of M. micrantha data.
To contribute to measurement techniques for carbon sink additions and emission reductions,and to provide data to support the development of a low-carbon agricultural park,the carbon balance of Brassica oleracea var. botrytis was estimated. To evaluate carbon balance, the main carbon storage components of B. oleracea var. botrytiss,soil respiration, and carbon sources of artificial management were determined by measuring biomass in an eco-agricultural area on Chongming Island in Shanghai. The main results showed that (1) the minimum carbon content of B. oleracea var. botrytiss was 25.7%,the maximum was 41.6%, and the average was 34.1%. (2) At harvest, carbon storage of the vegetable layer was 5.18 t·hm-2,and the soil layer was 84.74 t·hm-2. (3) The respiration rate of the soil was highest in the initial stages of growth,and then gradually weakened. For one growing period, soil heterotrophic respiration effluxes for the B. oleracea var. botrytiss farmland was 2.38 t·hm-2. (4) Total carbon emission was 1.81 t·hm-2,and (5) net carbon sequestration in one growing period was 0.99 t·hm-2 fixing CO2 4.01 t·hm-2. Thus,to improve the weak carbon sink, reasonable fertilizer including organic fertilizer should be applied to increase production that will increase carbon sinks;as production increases, agroforestry intercropping and personnel management structure adjustments can be used to reduce the carbon source.
On the basis of the survey on ecological land use status in Fuhai Town,Cixi City,Zhejiang Province and applying the ecological sensitivity assessment method and landscape ecological security theory,the ecological sensitivity factors including land use status, regional exploitation intensity and distance from the environmental sensitive area in combination of landscape pattern index were used to evaluate the ecological sensitive degree and its spatial distribution situation of Fuhai Town. The results showed that the ecological land use at high,medium,low sensitivity levels occupied 7.16 per cent,27.29 per cent and 30.46 per cent of the total area respectively and the remained 35.09 per cent was not ecologically sensitive. According to the data above, this paper classified three types of ecological land such as core protection zone, limited development zone and suitable development zone from ecological security aspect and also proposed management measures for different ecological land types to provide planning basis and construction strategy for ecological land use in Fuhai town.
The Rhododendron communities in Wudang District of Guiyang City was studied by sample plot and quantitative analysis to analyze the plant components, structures, important values and α diversities of different Rhododendron communities. The research had the following findings.(1)There were four Rhododendron communities in Wudang District of Guiyang City,namely,Rhododendron siderophyllum and Quercus fabrei (Community Ⅰ),Rhododendron siderophyllum, Quercus fabrei and Quercus acutissima(Community Ⅱ),Rhododendron siderophyllum and Quercus acutissima (Community Ⅲ),Rhododendron siderophyllum, Quercus acutissima and Garcinia hanburyi(Community Ⅳ). (2) With Rhododendron siderophyllum as the dominant plants,the Rhododendron communities also had plants such as Quercus acutissima and Quercus fabrei. In terms of Margalef index for richness, Simpson index for diversity,Shannon-Wiener index for diversity,the ranking of four Rhododendron communities was as follows:Community Ⅲ> Community Ⅱ> Community Ⅳ> Community Ⅰ;the ranking for Pielou Evenness index was Community Ⅰ> Community Ⅲ> Community Ⅱ> Community Ⅳ. (4) When preserving the diversity of the Rhododendron communities,the plants structures of Community Ⅲ should be used as reference. Community Ⅰ,Community Ⅱ and Community Ⅳ should be restored to make their plants structures close to that of Community Ⅲ.
The article objective to study diversity of plant floristic, based on floristic spectra, diversity indexes, correlation analysis, and cluster analysis, plant floristic diversity in the Baishilazi National Nature Reserve (NNR) of Liaoning Province was analyzed and compared to adjacent mountains. Results showed an abundance of species in Baishilazi including angiosperms and dicotyledonous plants. It is obvious in the dominant family and genus, angiosperms having a single-species and species with only a few genera were plentiful were showing some relict phenomenon. Distribution types were diverse and complex in the Baishilazi NNR, endemic genera and species were lacking, and tropical elements were few with a greater proportions of taxa belonging to species with temperate characteristics. Compared with adjacent mountains, the Shannon-Wiener index of the floristics was significantly different, whereas the Simpson index was not. The Shannon-Wiener Indexes of Taishan and Kunyushan were high. Correlation of species diversity for different mountains was highly significant(P=0.01)with r between 0.839 and 0.995. The cluster analysis of similarities and latitude patterns for flora of Northeast China, indicated that flora of Liaodong Peninsula in Liaoning Province belonged to the flora of North China.
Osmanthus fragrans is being concerned in recent years due to its high economic value and ornamental value. It can provide significant evidences for breeding of new cultivars and protecting of natural populations with studying on the genetic diversity of natural populations of O. fragrans. The genetic diversity of 96 O. fragrans individuals of two natural populations from Quannan County of Jiangxi Province and Changting County of Fujian Province was estimated using amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) method. A total number of 330 reproducible bands were amplified using seven AFLP primer combinations, and 276 bands were polymorphic with a proportion of 83.64%. At the species level, Shannon's information index (I) was 0.428 3, the Nei's genetic diversity (He) was 0.285 6, which indicated the genetic diversity of O. fragrans was rich; at the population level, Shannon's information index and Nei's genetic diversity of Fujian population was higher 1.5 than Jiangxi population, that showed Fujian population owned much rich genetic resource. Moreover, AMOVA indicated the most total genetic variation was within populations with a proportion of 71% and the less was among the populations with a proportion of 29%. Meanwhile, a certain extent level of genetic differentiation (Gst=0.161 6) was detected among the populations and genetic flow was 2.594 9.
Variations in phenotypic traits and chemical compositions of Torreya grandis seeds sampled from a natural population located in Xiaorong Village of Chengkan Town, Huangshan City, Anhui Province were analyzed with a view to laying a foundation for elite germplasm collection, selection and breeding of new cultivars, and genetic studies. Results showed as follows:(1) For seeds with and without aril, their weight, transverse diameter, vertical diameter shape index and the weight percentage of seeds with aril to those without aril ranged from 5.24-12.23 g, 2.30-5.19 g, 1.963-3.018 cm, 1.438-2.270 cm, 2.255-3.685 cm, 2.009-3.208 cm, 0.695-0.902, 0.555-0.823 and 34.80%-66.49%, respectively. (2) The fat, starch and protein contents changed from 232.96 to 425.54 g·kg-1, 59.95-114.40 g·kg-1, and 153.22-231.85 g·kg-1, respectively. The content of P, K, Ca, Mg, Cu, Zn, Mn and Cd varied from 0.81 to 2.29 g·kg-1,23.90-53.72 g·kg-1, 80.18-224.38 mg·kg-1, 765.84-798.57 mg·kg-1, 8.10-31.60 mg·kg-1, 40.43-128.00 mg·kg-1, 1.45-23.32 mg·kg-1, and 0.01-0.11 mg·kg-1, respectively. As and Pb were not detectable in most of samples. And (3) The weight, transverse diameter, and vertical diameter of seeds with and without aril had a most significantly positive linear correlation between each other(P<0.01),but the relationship between the seed shape and weight of both seeds with or without aril was irregular. There was no significant correlation between weight and shape index of seeds with and without aril. But weight of seeds without aril was negatively correlated with shape index of seeds with aril at a significant level(P<0.05). The weight percentage of seeds with aril to those without aril was most significantly in negative correlation with transverse and vertical diameter of seeds with and without aril and positively correlated with shape index of seeds without aril at a most significant level, but not correlated with shape index of seeds with aril. There was no significant correlation between 3 nutritive ingredients, which had no correlation with both phenotypic traits of seeds and chemical composition, either, except the significantly negative correlation between fat percentage and weight of seeds without aril. There was a significant positive correlation between K and Mg, Cu and P as well as Cu and Mn contents. The Mn content was positively correlated with shape index of seeds with and without aril at a most significant level.
Based on forest fire statistics of Zhejiang Province, the Canadian Forest Fire Weather Index (CFFWIS) System was used to analyze the changes of forest fire weather indices during the forest fire danger period. Results showed that forest fire frequency of the study area would decrease, but the average area burned per fire would increase during the fire danger period(P<0.01). The Fine Fuels Moisture Code(FFMC) and the initial spread index(ISI) reached a high level and could be used as strong indicators of fire danger in Zhejiang forests(P<0.05). During the fire danger period of the study area, fuel moisture codes, fire behavior indices, and fire severity indices from 1991-2011 increased overall. Combustible dry conditions of the spring fire season had reached a dangerous level and had a higher rate than autumn and winter fire seasons(P<0.05). Therefore, forest fire prevention and control work in the region, especially in spring, is urgently needed.
Species of the Botryosphaeriaceae family are important pathogens causing cankers and die-back on many woody plants. In previous studies Botryosphaeria dothidea has commonly been reported as a pathogen of Chinese hickory(Carya cathayensis) canker; however, it was unclear whether other species of Botryosphaeriaceae were also related to hickory canker. In one study, several species of Botryosphaeriaceae were isolated from Chinese hickory, and then they were identified based on anamorphic morphology and rDNA Internal Transcribed Spacer(ITS) sequences. A phylogentic analysis indicated that these isolates formed three clades and were identified as B. dothidea, B. fabicercianum, and B. obtusa with isolation rates of B. dothidea (71.42%) predominant and B. fabicercianum and B. obtusa being much lower(14.28%). In pathogenicity testing, all three pathogens caused stem cankers on Chinese hickory but had different degrees of pathogenicity. B. obtusa and B. fabicercianum were first reported as a pathogen of Carya cathayensis canker.
To investigate the effect of different light-emitting diodes (LEDs) on the quality and yield of overwintering Capsicum frutescens (peppers) in the greenhouse, a field trial was conducted with[blue (B), red-blue (8:3, RB83), white (W), and red-blue(7:3, RB73)] LEDs and supplemental time per day (10 h, 8 h and 6 h).The results showed that B was conducive to the synthesis of soluble solids, titratableacids, soluble proteins, free amino acids, and carotenoids; RB83 could promote the formation of soluble sugars, soluble proteins, and vitamin C(Vc); W was effective for the increase in chlorophyll, total flavonoids, and soluble proteins; and RB73 could be beneficial for total polyphenols and soluble protein synthesis. Also, B promoted lateral growth and red(R) promoted longitudinal growth; whereas, RB was good for fruit enlargement and marketability. The yield, commodity rate and fruiting rate of pepper were very significantly higher(P<0.01) than control when exposed to RB83 or RB73 for 8 h with RB 83 better. Thus, for overwintering pepper, RB 83 applied for 8 h under field conditions is recommended.
To understand the combined effects of acid rain and litter on Cryptomeria fortunei seedlings, pigment content and reflectance spectra in 3-year-old C. fortunei seedlings were tested with treatments of the control(ck), acid rain stress (pH 4.0, Tr1), litter addition (60 g, Tr2) and their combination (Tr3), which then compared with a correlation analysis. Results showed that compared to the control, chlorophyll content decreased 11.6% in Tr1, 26.1% in Tr2, and 39.1% in Tr3. Acid rain also decreased the reflectance spectral parameters (SR680, NDVI, PSNDa, PSNDb, RARSc, and SIPI) but increased mSR705 and RARSa(P<0.05). For Tr2, some reflectance spectral parameters(RR, SR680, mSR705, NDVI, and PRI) were significantly less than the control(P<0.05), and Tr3 made highly difference compared to the control(P<0.01). Reflectance between 514-629 nm and 690-1 000 nm had a highly significant correlation(0.80 <r <0.98), which was near 0.98, with the chlorophyll content and chlorophyll a/b. In addition, r between chlorophyll content and the first derivative of reflectance spectra was highly significant within 424-486 nm, 552-682 nm, 698-755 nm, and 762-772 nm, that maximum r was near 0.96. The reflectance spectrum parameters, such as RR, RARSa and λred, were significantly correlated(P<0.05) with pigment content. The correlation coefficients between reflectance spectral parameters (RR, Dλblue, Sblue, Dλyellow, Syellow, Dλred, and Sred) and chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, and chlorophyll a/b were near 0.8. Therefore, acid rain enhanced the allelopathic effect in litter on chlorophyll a by increasing chlorophyll a degradation; visible light and the near infrared region were the sensitive areas of reflectance and first derivative in the leaves of C. fortunei; and reflectance spectral parameters RR, Dλblue, Sblue, Dλyellow, Syellow, Dλred, and Sred could be used to evaluate chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, and chlorophyll a/b.
To better understand the effects of water limitations on the emission of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), VOC emissions from Rosmarinus officinalis were determined under drought stress and after re-watering. Results showed that with drought stress R. officinalis VOC emissions and lipoxidase activity were strongly affected with the degree of influence dependent on the stress level and time. At the beginning of the drought stress period, lipoxidase activity increased slightly; midway through, the activity reached a peak; then it declined. Drought stress reduced R. officinalis VOC emissions, but induced new VOCs including 2-hexenal, leaf alcohol, sorbaldehyde, and n-decanal. Also, R. officinalis increased terpene emissions, especially monoterpenes, to reduce drought stress damage.
To determine degradation in a Phyllostachys violascens stand due to mulching and to provide theoretical guidance for regeneration of degraded bamboo stands. Treatments included stands with short-term (1 year), respite (mulched 3 years and rested 3 years), long-term mulching (6 years), and with no mulching (ck) as a control. With 3 plots of each treatments, plots were chosen that had similar slope, aspect, area(each plot not less than 0.1 hectares) etc. Bamboo leaves of 2- and 3-year-old culms was collected in each plots, and a total of 18 replications of each age bamboo. The leaves nutrients concent of bamboo were determined, and the significant analysis of nutrients concent, resorption efficiency along with leaf content, the correlation analysis of major leaf nutrients in 2- and 3-year-old culms with different mulch management durations was done with Office-Excel software and SPSS 10.0 software(P=0.05). Results showed that nutrient content of mature leaves and their resorption efficiency for 2-year-old culms was significantly higher(P<0.05) than that of 3-year-old culms. Compared with the control, N, P, and K increased significantly(P<0.05) in short-term and respite mulched stands; N declined significantly (P<0.05), but P was in adverse(P<0.05) in long-term mulched stands; and Mg decreased significantly(P<0.05) in all stands. Nutrient resorption efficiency and the correlation between different nutrient elements both increased significantly (P<0.05) in short-term and respite mulched stands; whereas in long-term mulched stands, apart from an significant increase(P<0.05) of N and P resorption efficiency, both declined significantly (P<0.05). Thus, mulch management affected nutrient content and resorption efficiency of leaves with long-term mulching causing negative impacts on growth and development of Ph. violascens stands; respite mulched treatments should be adopted in production.
Leaves of four bamboo species:Phyllostachys edulis, Phyllostachys violascens, Phyllostachys nuda, and Phyllostachys prominens were studied to determine variation in flavonoid content and anti-oxidant activity for different seasons. Aluminum nitrate-sodium nitrite colorimetry was used to find the flavonoid content with 2, 2 diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl(DPPH·) and 2, 2-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid(ABTS+·) being employed to discover anti-oxidative activity. Results in spring showed that flavonoid content of Ph. edulis was highest(2.12%±0.15%)(P<0.05), but in summer, autumn, and winter, there were no significant differences among the four bamboo species(P>0.05) in the test flavonoid content. Flavonoid content of Ph. nuda did not change significantly (P>0.05) during the four seasons; for Ph. edulis, summer flavonoid content(2.36%±0.6%) was higher than winter(1.52%±0.04%)(P<0.05);and for Ph. violascens(2.40%±0.17%) and Ph. prominens (2.07%±0.13%) the highest flavonoid content was in summer. The scavenging ability of DPPH·for bamboo leaf flavonoids was higher in summer with Ph. edulis being best. The scavenging ability of ABTS+·for bamboo leaf flavonoids was greater in spring and autumn with no significance (P>0.05) between species. These results can be used for the exploitation of bamboo resources.
Caladium bicolor ‘Wightii’ and ‘Postman Joyner’ tissue culture plantlet were treated with low temperatures(0-20℃) to determine changes in relative electrical conductivity, soluble proteins, soluble sugars, proline, and superoxide dismutase(SOD) activities. Analysis of variance, correlation analysis, and multiple comparisons were utilized; and the semi-lethal temperature was studied. The semi-lethal temperature of the two C. bicolor cultivars was high. Relative conductivity of the two C. bicolor cultivars was negatively correlated to cold resistance ability. However, soluble proteins, soluble sugars, proline, and SOD activities were positively correlated with cold resistance of the two C. bicolor cultivars. Analysis of variance showed that various indicators at different temperatures and different cultivars have reached a very significant level. Thus, in response to physiological changes with low temperature, relative conductivity, soluble protein, soluble sugar, and SOD activities were reliable indicators of cold hardiness and of cold tolerance for these two cultivars, but the relationship between proline and cold resistance must be further studied. Cold resistance of C. bicolor ‘Wightii’ was better than that of C. bicolor ‘Postman Joyner’.
To solve the problem of inhibited growth in mature Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata) plantations, an analysis of variance for two different tending methods(ecological thinning and sanitation cutting)on growth for 60 blocks of standard Chinese fir forest plots was conducted. Results showed that compared to the control, ecological thinning and sanitation cutting significantly increased diameter at breast height (DBH) and individual growth volume (P<0.01), but not height growth (P>0.05). And judging by the statistics, the influence of ecological thinning was greater than sanitation cutting. Although providing more space for Chinese fir had no effect on height growth, DBH and individual volume increases were conducive to cultivation of large diameter Chinese fir timber which raised ecological performance and the economic benefits per unit area.
Chenopodium quinoa (quinoa), an annual herb of multiple species belonging to the genus Chenopodium, is native to the Andes in South America, where it has been planted for more than 5 000 years. Because of quinoa's high nutrient value and many uses, it has attracted extensive research. This paper reviewed research results from China and abroad concerning biological characteristics of quinoa such as heat, humidity, bright sunlight, cold resistance, short-days, spikes, self-pollination, seed reproduction, and growth period; physiological properties such as salinity, drought, frost, plant disease, and insect pest resistance; and chemical composition such as total polyphenols, saponins, flavonoids, polysaccharides, proteins, amino acids, mineral nutrients, and other chemical compositions. Then, its present exploitation and problems were elaborated. Overall, research to strengthen species resources, resistance, and chemical components, as well as to explore quinoa's potential utilization value should be undertaken.
To explore the rule of cypress leaf color changes in autumn and winter, and study the physiological characteristics under different illumination, temperature and habitat conditions, the mature cypress trees' (Taxodium distichum) variations of chlorophyll, anthocyanin and soluble sugar content in its leaves were measured during the color-changing period from late August to early November by spectrophotometry. The results indicated that the chlorophyll content descended gradually. The chlorophyll content in the leaves in the shady side was significantly higher than that in the sunny side, and that in the east of the sunny side was significantly higher than the west. The anthocyanin content kept ascending slowly before November 5th and increased significantly since then. The soluble sugar content increased gradually. During the experiment, there was a negative correlation between daily average temperature and anthocyanin content, or soluble sugar content. Chlorophyll, anthocyanin and soluble sugar contents of cypress which grown in the water were less than those grown in the field. The red-leaf period of cypress trees which were grown in the water was longer than those grown in the field, and there was a significantly negative correlation(P<0.05)between anthocyanin and chlorophyll content. Under the adequate sunlight, red-leaf period of cypress trees grown in the water was longer than those grown in the field, and the former had higher ornamental values.
Our former work has discovered that bamboo vinegar may be a new olfactory disturbance agent against mosquitoes. It is necessary that the further work on volatile organic compounds from original and refined bamboo vinegar in order to display effect of mosquito repellent. Original and refined bamboo vinegar VOCs were extracted using two kinds of extraction fiber heads with different polarity and then analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME). The result showed that extraction of 54 compounds from original bamboo vinegar and 57 compounds from refined bamboo vinegar, respectively. From the original bamboo vinegar, the polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) fiber extracted 41 compounds:mainly 2-methoxy-phenol (9.0%), 4-ethyl-phenol (8.4%), and phenol (6.5%); and the polyacrylate (PA) fiber extracted 32 compounds:primarily phenol (17.2%), 2-methoxy-phenol (12.7%), and acetic acid (11.8%). From the refined bamboo vinegar, the PDMS fiber extracted 42 compounds:mainly-methoxy-phenol (12.1%), 4-ethyl-phenol (8.9%), and phenol (6.8%) with the PA fiber extracting 35 compounds:mostly phenol (19.7%), 2-methoxy-phenol (14.7%), and acetic acid (6.7%). These results showed that for acids, phenol, and aldehyde from the original and refined bamboo vinegar, extraction with the PA fiber had a stronger adsorptive attraction than the PDMS fiber head. The PA fiber was superior in the adsorption of acids; whereas, the adsorptive attraction of the PDMS textile fiber head on the ketones and alkenes surpassed the PA textile fiber head's. The corresponding fiber may be used to extract the target component owing to improving precision effect on extracting various ingredients of bamboo vinegar.
In order to improve the isolated microspore culture system in Brassica juncea var. foliosa, five different genotypes of Brassica juncea var. foliosa were used to investigate the contribution of genotype, cool-pretreatment, heat shock, medium replacement and addition, as well as concentration of colchicine on microspore embryogenesis in vitro. Results showed that embryoids were obtained from four genotypes, and significant differences (P<0.05, Duncan's MRT) were observed for embryo yield with the highest yield being ‘Texuan-jiuxin’. For all cultivars, 24-48 h of cool-pretreatment at 4℃ and heat shock at 33-34℃ improved embryo yields. Also, medium addition and replacement enhanced microspore embryogenesis with the best treatment using a constant volume for a 90.0 g·L-1 sucrose medium supplemented to a 170.0 g·L-1 sucrose concentration medium after 48 h. In addition, treating the freshly isolated microspore with 1-10 mg·L-1 colchicine for 24-48 h greatly improved(P<0.05, Duncan's MRT)embryo yields of the four cultivars. The present results could be used to obtain haploid efficiently for the plant breeding and basic research in Brassica juncea var. foliosa.
Establish an optimal sequence-related amplified polymorphism(SRAP)-PCR reaction system was to lay the foundation of studying genetic diversity, relationship analysis and genetic improvement in Sapindus mukurossi. The leaves from Nanping, Fujian Province were as material. Five influence factors including template DNA, Mg2+, dNTPs, primers and TaqDNA polymerase were optimized with single factor method.The optimum reaction system by the volume of 20 μL was established as follows:1×PCR buffer, 50 ng DNA template, 2.0 mmol·L-1 Mg2+, 0.2 mmol·L-1 dNTPs, 0.5×16.67 nkat TaqDNA polymerase and 0.4 μmol·L-1 primers. Using the optimization system, 12 different source materials of Sapindus mukurossi were detected a clear and stable results. It shows that the optimazed SRAP-PCR system could be suitable for the genetic diversity analysis of Sapindus mukurossi geographical provenance.